Found 50 papers in cond-mat
Date of feed: Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:30:00 GMT

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Design of quasiperiodic magnetic superlattices and domain walls supporting bound states. (arXiv:2306.06132v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Miguel Castillo-Celeita, Alonso Contreras-Astorga, David J. Fernández C

We study the simplest Lam\'e magnetic superlattice in graphene, finding its allowed and forbidden energy bands and band-edge states explicitly. Then, we design quasiperiodic magnetic superlattices supporting bound states using Darboux transformations. This technique enables us to add any finite number of bound states, which we exemplify with the most straightforward cases of one and two bound states in the designed spectrum. The topics of magnetic superlattices and domain walls in gapped graphene turn out to be connected by a unitary transformation in the limit of significantly large oscillation periods. We show that the generated quasiperiodic magnetic superlattices are also linked to domain walls, with the bound states keeping their nature in such a limit.

Entanglement in BF theory I: Essential topological entanglement. (arXiv:2306.06158v1 [hep-th])
Jackson R. Fliss, Stathis Vitouladitis

We study the entanglement structure of Abelian topological order described by $p$-form BF theory in arbitrary dimensions. We do so directly in the low-energy topological quantum field theory by considering the algebra of topological surface operators. We define two appropriate notions of subregion operator algebras which are related by a form of electric-magnetic duality. To each subregion algebra we assign an entanglement entropy which we coin essential topological entanglement. This is a refinement to the traditional topological entanglement entropy. It is intrinsic to the theory, inherently finite, positive, and sensitive to more intricate topological features of the state and the entangling region. This paper is the first in a series of papers investigating entanglement and topological order in higher dimensions.

Quantum Hall Effect in a Weyl-Hubbard Model: Interplay between Topology and Correlation. (arXiv:2306.06183v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Snehasish Nandy, Christopher Lane, Jian-Xin Zhu

The interplay between topology and electronic correlation effects offers a rich avenue for discovering emergent quantum phenomena in condensed matter systems. In this work, starting from the Weyl-Hubbard model, we investigate the quantum Hall effect to explore the consequence of onsite Hubbard repulsion on nontrivial Weyl band topology in the presence of an external magnetic field. Within the Gutzwiller projected wavefunction method, we find the system to undergo multiple topological phase transitions, including two distinct Weyl phases with a different number of Weyl node pairs and a trivial narrow band insulator, by tuning on-site Coulomb interaction. Interestingly, these two Weyl phases can be identified by the sign of their chiral Landau levels. The possible experimental signature of these topological phases and correlation effects is provided by the magnetic-field dependent quantum Hall conductivity within the Kubo response theory.

Chiral pair density wave as the precursor of pseudogap in kagom\'e superconductors. (arXiv:2306.06242v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Narayan Mohanta

Motivated by scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments on AV$_3$Sb$_5$ (A = Cs, Rb, K) that revealed periodic real-space modulation of electronic states at low energies, I show using model calculations that a tripple-$\bf Q$ chiral pair density wave (CPDW) is generated in the superconducting state by a charge order of $2a\! \times \!2a$ superlattice periodicity, intertwined with a time-reversal symmetry breaking orbital loop current. The CPDW correlation survives even when the long-range superconducting phase coherence is diminished by a magnetic field or temperature. The superconducting critical field is enhanced beyond the Chandrasekhar-Clogston limit, pointing to a rare quantum state above the superconducting transition. The presented results suggest that the CPDW can be regarded as the origin of the pseudogap observed near the superconducting transition.

Bandgaps of insulators from moment-functional based spectral density-functional theory. (arXiv:2306.06259v1 [cond-mat.other])
Frank Freimuth, Stefan Blügel, Yuriy Mokrousov

Within the method of spectral moments it is possible to construct the spectral function of a many-electron system from the first $2P$ spectral moments ($P=1,2,3,\dots$). The case $P=1$ corresponds to standard Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT). Taking $P>1$ allows us to consider additional important properties of the uniform electron gas (UEG) in the construction of suitable moment potentials for moment-functional based spectral density-functional theory (MFbSDFT). For example, the quasiparticle renormalization factor $Z$, which is not explicitly considered in KS-DFT, can be included easily. In the 4-pole approximation of the spectral function of the UEG (corresponding to $P=4$) we can reproduce the momentum distribution, the second spectral moment, and the charge response acceptably well, while a treatment of the UEG by KS-DFT reproduces from these properties only the charge response. For weakly and moderately correlated systems we may reproduce the most important aspects of the 4-pole approximation by an optimized two-pole model, which leaves away the low-energy satellite band. From the optimized two-pole model we extract \textit{parameter-free universal} moment potentials for MFbSDFT, which improve the description of the bandgaps in Si, SiC, BN, MgO, CaO, and ZnO significantly.

Tailoring Exciton Dynamics in TMDC Heterobilayers in the Quantum Plasmonic Regime. (arXiv:2306.06337v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Mahfujur Rahaman, Gwangwoo Kim, Kyung Yeol Ma, Seunguk Song, Hyeon Suk Shin, Deep Jariwala

Control of excitons in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and their heterostructures is fundamentally interesting for tailoring light-matter interactions and exploring their potential applications in high-efficiency optoelectronic and nonlinear photonic devices. While both intra- and interlayer excitons in TMDCs have been heavily studied, their behavior in the quantum tunneling regime, in which the TMDC or its heterostructure is optically excited and concurrently serves as a tunnel junction barrier, remains unexplored. Here, using the degree of freedom of a metallic probe in an atomic force microscope, we investigated both intralayer and interlayer excitons dynamics in TMDC heterobilayers via locally controlled junction current in a finely tuned sub-nanometer tip-sample cavity. Our tip-enhanced photoluminescence measurements reveal a significantly different exciton-quantum plasmon coupling for intralayer and interlayer excitons due to different orientation of the dipoles of the respective e-h pairs. Using a steady-state rate equation fit, we extracted field gradients, radiative and nonradiative relaxation rates for excitons in the quantum tunneling regime with and without junction current. Our results show that tip-induced radiative (nonradiative) relaxation of intralayer (interlayer) excitons becomes dominant in the quantum tunneling regime due to the Purcell effect. These findings have important implications for near-field probing of excitonic materials in the strong-coupling regime.

Inverse Design of Power-Law Nonlinear Constitutive Responses via Stiffness Normalization. (arXiv:2306.06585v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Brianna MacNider, H. Alicia Kim, Nicholas Boechler

The design of specified nonlinear mechanical responses into a structure or material is a highly sought after capability, which would have a significant impact in areas such as wave tailoring in metamaterials, impact mitigation, soft robotics, and biomedicine. Here, we present a topology optimization approach to design structures for desired nonlinear behavior, wherein we formulate the problem in such a way as to decouple the nonlinear response from the stiffness. We show results across different classes of nonlinearity while achieving a high degree of precision. The approach enables access to previously difficult to design for, or hitherto unachieved, nonlinear behavior via optimized structures, which can furthermore be incorporated as unit cells of designer materials with tailored nonlinear properties.

Jahn-Teller magnets. (arXiv:2306.06612v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
A.S. Moskvin

A wide class of materials with different crystal and electronic structures from quasi-two-dimensional unconventional superconductors (cuprates, nickelates, ferropnictides/chalcogenides, ruthenate SrRuO$_4$), 3D systems as manganites RMnO$_3$, ferrates (CaSr)FeO$_3$, nickelates RNiO$_3$, to silver oxide AgO are based on Jahn-Teller $3d$ and $4d$ ions. These unusual materials called Jahn-Teller (JT) magnets are characterized by an extremely rich variety of phase states from non-magnetic and magnetic insulators to unusual metallic and superconducting states. The unconventional properties of the JT-magnets can be related to the instability of their highly symmetric Jahn-Teller "progenitors" with the ground orbital $E$-state to charge transfer with anti-Jahn-Teller $d$-$d$ disproportionation and the formation of a system of effective local composite spin-singlet or spin-triplet, electronic or hole $S$-type bosons moving in a non-magnetic or magnetic lattice. We consider specific features of the anti-JT-disproportionation reaction, properties of the electron-hole dimers, possible phase states of JT-magnets, effective Hamiltonians for single- and two-band JT-magnets, and present a short overview of physical properties for actual JT-magnets.

Ferromagnetic Superconductivity in Two-dimensional Niobium Diselenide. (arXiv:2306.06659v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Tingyu Qu, Shangjian Jin, Fuchen Hou, Deyi Fu, Junye Huang, Darryl Foo Chuan Wei, Xiao Chang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Junhao Lin, Shaffique Adam, Barbaros Özyilmaz

The co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity becomes possible through unconventional pairing in the superconducting state. Such materials are exceedingly rare in solid-state systems but are promising platforms to explore topological phases, such as Majorana bound states. Theoretical investigations date back to the late 1950s, but only a few systems have so far been experimentally identified as potential hosts. Here, we show that atomically-thin niobium diselenide (NbSe$_2$) intercalated with dilute cobalt atoms spontaneously displays ferromagnetism below the superconducting transition temperature ($T_c$). We elucidate the origin of this phase by constructing a magnetic tunnel junction that consists of cobalt and cobalt-doped niobium diselenide (Co-NbSe$_2$) as the two ferromagnetic electrodes, with an ultra-thin boron nitride as the tunnelling barrier. At a temperature well below $T_c$, the tunnelling magnetoresistance shows a bistable state, suggesting a ferromagnetic order in Co-NbSe$_2$. We propose a RKKY exchange coupling mechanism based on the spin-triplet superconducting order parameter to mediate such ferromagnetism. We further perform non-local lateral spin valve measurements to confirm the origin of the ferromagnetism. The observation of Hanle precession signals show spin diffusion length up to micrometres below Tc, demonstrating an intrinsic spin-triplet nature in superconducting NbSe$_2$. Our discovery of superconductivity-mediated ferromagnetism opens the door to an alternative design of ferromagnetic superconductors

Strain and spin orbit coupling effects on electronic and optical properties of 2D CX/graphene (X = S, Se, Te) vdW heterostructure for solar energy harvesting. (arXiv:2306.06690v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Amit K Bhojani, Hardik L Kagdada, Dheeraj K Singh

Vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) graphene-based van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures have emerged as the technological materials for electronic and optoelectronic device applications. In this regard, for the first time, we systematically predicted the electronic and optical properties of CX/G (X = S, Se and Te; G = graphene) heterostructures under biaxial strain and spin orbit coupling (SOC) by first-principles calculations. Strain is induced by applying mechanical stress to the heterostructures, while SOC arises due to the interaction between the electron spin and its orbital motion. The electronic property calculations reveal that all three heterostructures exhibit indirect semiconducting nature with a narrow bandgap of 0.47-0.62 eV and remain indirect under compressive and tensile strains. Strong band splitting of 78.4 meV has been observed in the conduction band edge of CTe/G heterostructure in the presence of SOC due to the lack of an inversion center attributed to the large hole effective mass. Under compressive strain, the p-type of Schottky contact of CX/G heterostructures is converted into p-type Ohmic contact because of nearly negligible Schottky barrier height. Further, the optical property assessment reveals red and blue shifts in the absorption peak of CX/G heterostructures with regard to tensile and compressive strains, respectively. Despite this, the CTe/G heterostructure achieves a remarkable high {\eta} of 24.53% in the strain-free case whereas, it reaches to 28.31% with 4% compressive strain, demonstrating the potential for solar energy conversion device applications. Our findings suggest that CX/G heterostructures could be promising candidates for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

Robust Topological Anderson Insulator Induced Reentrant Localization Transition. (arXiv:2306.06818v1 [cond-mat.dis-nn])
Zhanpeng Lu, Yunbo Zhang, Zhihao Xu

We study the topology and localization properties of a generalized Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model with a quasi-periodic modulated hopping. It is found that the interplay of off-diagonal quasi-periodic modulations can induce topological Anderson insulator (TAI) phases and reentrant topological Anderson insulator (RTAI), and the topological phase boundaries can be uncovered by the divergence of the localization length of the zero-energy mode. In contrast to the conventional case that the TAI regime emerges in a finite range with the increase of disorder, the TAI and RTAI are robust against arbitrary modulation amplitude for our system. Furthermore, we find that the TAI and RTAI can induce the emergence of reentrant localization transitions. Such an interesting connection between the reentrant localization transition and the TAI/RTAI can be detected from the wave-packet dynamics in cold atom systems by adopting the technique of momentum-lattice engineering.

Restoration of non-Hermitian bulk-boundary correspondence by counterbalancing skin effect. (arXiv:2306.06837v1 [cond-mat.other])
Yi-Xin Xiao, Zhao-Qing Zhang, C. T. Chan

The non-Hermitian skin effect (NHSE) undermines the conventional bulk-boundary correspondence (BBC) since it results in a distinct bulk spectrum in open-boundary systems compared to the periodic counterpart. Using the non-Hermitian (NH) Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model as an example, we propose an intuitive approach, termed ``doubling and swapping" method, to restore the BBC. Explicitly, we construct a modified system by swapping the asymmetric intracell hoppings in every second primitive unit cell, such that it has double-sized unit cells compared to the NH SSH model and is free of NHSE. Importantly, the modified system and the NH SSH chain exhibit identical spectra under open boundary conditions (OBC). As a result, the modified system can serve as the valid bulk for defining topological invariants that correctly predicts edge states and topological phase transitions. The basic principle is applicable to many other systems such as the non-Hermitian Creutz ladder model. Furthermore, we extend the study to disordered systems in which the asymmetric hoppings are randomly swapped. We show that two types of winding numbers can be defined to account for the NHSE and topological edge states, respectively.

Non-zero, symmetric, off-diagonal resistance from rotational symmetry breaking in a Moire system. (arXiv:2306.06840v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Jay D. Sau, Sumanta Tewari

We show that any two-dimensional system with a non-zero \textit{symmetric} off-diagonal component of the resistance matrix, $R_{xy}=R_{yx} \neq 0$, must have the in-plane rotational symmetry broken down to $C_2$. Such a resistance response is Ohmic, and is different from the Hall response which is the \textit{anti-symmetric} part of the resistance tensor, $R_{xy}=-R_{yx}$, is rotationally symmetric in the 2D plane, and requires broken time-reversal symmetry. We show how a minute amount of strain due to lattice mismatch - less than $1 \%$ - can produce a vastly exaggerated symmetric off-diagonal response - $\frac{R_{xy}}{R_{xx}} \sim 20\%$ - because of the momentum matching constraints in a Moire system. Our results help explain an important new transport experiment on graphene-WSe$_2$ heterostructures, as well as are relevant for other experimental systems with rotational symmetry broken down to $C_2$, such as nematic systems and Kagome charge density waves.

Signature of Correlated Insulator in Electric Field Controlled Superlattice. (arXiv:2306.06848v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Jiacheng Sun, Sayed Ali Akbar Ghorashi, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Fernando Camino, Jennifer Cano, Xu Du

The Bloch electron energy spectrum of a crystalline solid is determined by the underlying lattice structure at the atomic level. In a 2-dimensional (2d) crystal it is possible to impose a superlattice with nanometer-scale periodicity, allowing to tune the fundamental Bloch electron spectrum, and enabling novel physical properties which are not accessible in the original crystal. In recent years, a top-down approach for creating 2d superlattices on monolayer graphene by means of nanopatterned electric gates has been studied, which allows the formation of isolated energy bands and Hofstadter Butterfly physics in quantizing magnetic fields. Within this approach, however, evidence of electron correlations which drive many problems at the forefront of physics research remains to be uncovered. In this work we demonstrate signatures of a correlated insulator phase in Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) modulated by a gate-defined superlattice potential, manifested as a set of resistance peaks centered at carrier densities of integer multiples of a single electron per unit cell of the superlattice potential. We associate the correlated insulator phase to the formation of flat energy bands due to the superlattice potential combined with inversion symmetry breaking. Inducing correlated electron phases with nanopatterning defined electric gates paves the way to custom-designed superlattices with arbitrary geometries and symmetries for studying band structure engineering and strongly correlated electrons in 2d materials.

Bogoliubov Corner Excitations in Conventional $s$-Wave Superfluids. (arXiv:2306.06907v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])
Wei Tu, Ya-Jie Wu, Ning Li, Miaodi Guo, Junpeng Hou

Higher-order topological superconductors and superfluids have triggered a great deal of interest in recent years. While Majorana corner or hinge states have been studied intensively, whether superconductors and superfluids, being topological or trivial, host higher-order topological Bogoliubov excitations remains elusive. In this work, we propose that Bogoliubov corner excitations can be driven from a trivial conventional $s$-wave superfluid through mirror-symmetric local potentials. The topological Bogoliubov excited modes originate from the nontrivial Bogoliubov excitation bands. These modes are protected by mirror symmetry and robust against mirror-symmetric perturbations as long as the Bogoliubov energy gap remains open. Our work provides new insight into higher-order topological excitation states in superfluids and superconductors.

Significant improvement of the lower critical field in Y doped Nb: potential replacement of basic material for the radio-frequency superconducting cavity. (arXiv:2306.06915v1 [physics.acc-ph])
Wei Xie, Yu-Hao Liu, Xinwei Fan, Hai-Hu Wen

The research of high energy and nuclear physics requires high power accelerators, and the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity is regarded as their engine. Up to now, the widely used practical and effective material for making the SRF cavity is pure Nb. The key parameter that governs the efficiency and the accelerating field (E_acc) of a SRF cavity is the lower critical field Hc1. Here, we report a significant improvement of Hc1 for a new type of alloy, Nb_{1-x}Y_x fabricated by the arc melting technique. Experimental investigations with multiple tools including x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, resistivity and magnetization are carried out, showing that the samples have good quality and a 30%-60% enhancement of Hc1. First principle calculations indicate that this improvement is induced by the delicate tuning of a Lifshitz transition of a Nb derivative band near the Fermi energy, which increases the Ginzburg-Landau parameter and Hc1. Our results may trigger a replacement of the basic material and thus a potential revolution for manufacturing the SRF cavity.

The Origin of Ti 1s XANES Main Edge Shifts and EXAFS Oscillations in the Energy Storage Materials Ti2CTx and Ti3C2Tx MXenes. (arXiv:2306.06933v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Lars-Åke Näslund, Martin Magnuson

A potential application of two-dimensional (2D) MXenes, such as Ti2CTx and Ti3C2Tx, is energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors, batteries, and hydride electrochemical cells, where intercalation of ions between the 2D layers is considered as a charge carrier. Electrochemical cycling investigations in combination with Ti 1s X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) have therefore been performed with the objective to study oxidation state changes during potential variations. In some of these studies Ti3C2Tx has shown main edge shifts in the Ti 1s X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). Here we show that these main edge shifts originate from the Ti 4p orbital involvement in the bonding between the surface Ti and the termination species at the fcc-sites. The study further shows that the t2g-eg crystal field splitting (10Dq) observed in the pre-edge absorption region indicate weaker Ti-C bonds in Ti2CTx and Ti3C2Tx compared to TiC and the corresponding MAX phases. The results from this study provide information necessary for improved electronic modeling and subsequently a better description of the materials properties of the MXenes. In general, potential applications, where surface interactions with intercalation elements are important processes, will benefit from the new knowledge presented.

Disorder and quantum transport of helical quantum Hall phase in graphene. (arXiv:2306.06939v1 [cond-mat.dis-nn])
Yue-Ran Ding, Dong-Hui Xu, Chui-Zhen Chen

Recently, an exotic quantum Hall ferromagnet with spin-filtered helical edge modes was observed in monolayer graphene on a high-dielectric constant substrate at moderate magnetic fields, withstanding temperatures of up to 110 Kelvin [L. Veyrat et al., Science 367, 781 (2020)]. However, the characteristic quantized longitudinal resistance mediated by these edge modes departs from quantization with decreasing temperature. In this work, we investigate the transport properties of helical edge modes in a graphene nanoribbon under a perpendicular magnetic field using the Landauer-Buttiker transport formalism. We find that the departure of quantization of longitudinal conductance is due to the helical-edge gap opened by the Rashba spin-orbital coupling. The quantization can be restored by weak nonmagnetic Anderson disorder at low temperature, increasing the localization length, or by raising temperature at weak disorder, through thermal broadening. The resulted conductance is very close to the quantized value 2e2/h, which is in qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. Furthermore, we suggest that the helical quantum Hall phase in graphene could be a promising platform for creating Majorana zero modes by introducing superconductivity.

Microscopic analysis of proximity-induced superconductivity and metallization effects in superconductor-germanium hole nanowires. (arXiv:2306.06944v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Christoph Adelsberger, Henry F. Legg, Daniel Loss, Jelena Klionvaja

Low-dimensional Ge hole devices are promising systems with many potential applications such as hole spin qubits, Andreev spin qubits, Josephson junctions, and can serve as a basis for the realization of topological superconductivity. This vast array of potential uses for Ge largely stems from the exceptionally strong and controllable spin-orbit interaction (SOI), ultralong mean free paths, long coherence times, and CMOS compatibility. However, when brought into proximity with a superconductor (SC), metallization normally diminishes many useful properties of a semiconductor, for instance, typically reducing the $g$ factor and SOI energy, as well as renormalizing the effective mass. In this paper we consider metallization of a Ge nanowire (NW) in proximity to a SC, explicitly taking into account the 3D geometry of the NW. We find that proximitized Ge exhibits a unique phenomenology of metallization effects, where the 3D cross section plays a crucial role. For instance, in contrast to expectations, we find that SOI can be enhanced by strong coupling to the superconductor. We also show that the thickness of the NW plays a critical role in determining both the size of the proximity induced pairing potential and metallization effects, since the coupling between NW and SC strongly depends on the distance of the NW wave function from the interface with the SC. In the absence of electrostatic effects, we find that a sizable gap opens only in thin NWs ($d\lesssim 3$ nm). In thicker NWs, the wave function must be pushed closer to the SC by electrostatic effects in order to achieve a sizable proximity gap such that the required electrostatic field strength can simultaneously induce a strong SOI. The unique and sometimes beneficial nature of metallization effects in SC-Ge NW devices evinces them as ideal platforms for future applications in quantum information processing.

Exceptional Classifications of Non-Hermitian Systems. (arXiv:2306.06967v1 [quant-ph])
Jung-Wan Ryu, Jae-Ho Han, Chang-Hwan Yi, Moon Jip Park, Hee Chul Park

Eigenstate coalescence in non-Hermitian systems is widely observed in diverse scientific domains encompassing optics and open quantum systems. Recent investigations have revealed that adiabatic encircling of exceptional points (EPs) leads to a nontrivial Berry phase in addition to an exchange of eigenstates. Based on these phenomena, we propose in this work an exhaustive classification framework for EPs in non-Hermitian physical systems. In contrast to previous classifications that only incorporate the eigenstate exchange effect, our proposed classification gives rise to finer $\mathbb{Z}_2$ classifications depending on the presence of a $\pi$ Berry phase after the encircling of the EPs. Moreover, by mapping arbitrary one-dimensional systems to the adiabatic encircling of EPs, we can classify one-dimensional non-Hermitian systems characterized by topological phase transitions involving EPs. Applying our exceptional classification to various one-dimensional models, such as the non-reciprocal Su--Schrieffer--Heeger (SSH) model, we exhibit the potential for enhancing the understanding of topological phases in non-Hermitian systems. Additionally, we address exceptional bulk-boundary correspondence and the emergence of distinct topological boundary modes in non-Hermitian systems.

Magnetically tunable exciton valley coherence in monolayer WS$_2$ mediated by the electron-hole exchange and exciton-phonon interactions. (arXiv:2306.06977v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Kang Lan, Shijie Xie, Jiyong Fu, Fanyao Qu

We develop a model, which incorporates both intra- and intervalley scatterings to master equation, to explore exciton valley coherence in monolayer WS$_2$ subjected to magnetic field. For linearly polarized (LP) excitation accompanied with an initial coherence, our determined valley dynamics manifests the coherence decay being faster than the exciton population relaxation, and agrees with experimental data by Hao et al.[Nat. Phys. 12, 677 (2016)]. Further, we reveal that magnetic field may quench the electron-hole (e-h) exchange induced pure dephasing -- a crucial decoherence source -- as a result of lifting of valley degeneracy, allowing to magnetically regulate valley coherence. In particular, at low temperatures for which the exciton-phonon (ex-ph) interaction is weak, we find that the coherence time is expected to attain ${\tau}_{\mathcal{C}}\sim 1$ ps, facilitating full control of qubits based on the valley pseudospin. For dark excitons, we demonstrate an emerging coherence even in the absence of initial coherent state, which has a long coherence time ($\sim 15$ ps) at low temperature. Our work provides an insight into tunable valley coherence and coherent valley control based on dark excitons.

Theoretical model for the extreme positive magnetoresistance. (arXiv:2306.07020v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
George Kastrinakis

We present a model for the positive extreme magnetoresistance (XMR), recently observed in a plethora of metallic systems, such as PtSn$_4$, PtBi$_2$, PdCoO$_2$, WTe$_2$, NbSb$_2$, NbP, TaSb$_2$, LaSb, LaBi, ZrSiS and MoTe$_2$. The model is an extension of our earlier work on positive giant magnetoresistance, and uses an elaborate diagrammatic formulation. XMR is a bulk effect (not a surface effect), due to the dramatic sensitivity of the conductivity to the finite magnetic field $H$. This is possible at low temperatures, in the presence of finite disorder elastic spin scattering, and for a special value, predicted from the theory, of the material-dependent effective Coulomb repulsion. Good agreement with experiments is obtained. According to our model XMR is higher in cleaner samples, and anisotropic with regards to the direction of $H$. We discuss in particular compounds containing the elements Pt, Sc, and Rh.

Morphology Transition with Temperature and their Effect on Optical Properties of Colloidal MoS2 Nanostructures. (arXiv:2306.07093v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Simran Lambora, Asha Bhardwaj

Morphology plays a crucial role in deciding the chemical and optical properties of nanomaterials due to confinement effects. We report the morphology transition of colloidal molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanostructures, synthesized by one pot heat-up method, from mix of quantum dots (QDs) and nanosheets to predominantly nanorods by varying the synthesis reaction temperature from 90 to 160 degree C. The stoichiometry and composition of the synthesized QDs, nanosheets and nanorods have been quantified to be MoS2 using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Nanostructure morphology transition due to variation in reaction temperature has resulted in photoluminescence quantum yield enhancement from zero to 4.4% on increase in temperature from 90 to 120 degree C. On further increase in temperature to 160 degree C, a decrease in quantum yield to 2.63% is observed. A red shift of 18 nm and 140 nm in the emission maxima and absorption edge respectively is observed for the synthesized nanostructures with increase in reaction temperature from 90 to 160 degree C. The change in the quantum yield is attributed to the change in shape and hence confinement of charge carriers. To the best of our knowledge, first-time microscopic analysis of colloidal MoS2 nanostructures shape and optical property variation with temperature explained by non-classical growth mechanism is presented.

Radio frequency driven superconducting diode and parity conserving Cooper pair transport in a two-dimensional germanium hole gas. (arXiv:2306.07109v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Marco Valentini, Oliver Sagi, Levon Baghumyan, Thijs de Gijsel, Jason Jung, Stefano Calcaterra, Andrea Ballabio, Juan Aguilera Servin, Kushagra Aggarwal, Marian Janik, Thomas Adletzberger, Rubén Seoane Souto, Martin Leijnse, Jeroen Danon, Constantin Schrade, Erik Bakkers, Daniel Chrastina, Giovanni Isella, Georgios Katsaros

Superconductor/semiconductor hybrid devices have attracted increasing interest in the past years. Superconducting electronics aims to complement semiconductor technology, while hybrid architectures are at the forefront of new ideas such as topological superconductivity and protected qubits. In this work, we engineer the induced superconductivity in two-dimensional germanium hole gas by varying the distance between the quantum well and the aluminum. We demonstrate a hard superconducting gap and realize an electrically and flux tunable superconducting diode using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). This allows to tune the current phase relation (CPR), to a regime where single Cooper pair tunneling is suppressed, creating a $ \sin \left( 2 \varphi \right)$ CPR. Shapiro experiments complement this interpretation and the microwave drive allows to create a diode with $ \approx 100 \%$ efficiency. The reported results open up the path towards monolithic integration of spin qubit devices, microwave resonators and (protected) superconducting qubits on a silicon technology compatible platform.

Relaxation effects in twisted bilayer molybdenum disulfide: structure, stability, and electronic properties. (arXiv:2306.07130v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Florian M. Arnold, Alireza Ghasemifard, Agnieszka Kuc, Jens Kunstmann, Thomas Heine

Manipulating the interlayer twist angle is a powerful tool to tailor the properties of layered two-dimensional crystals. The twist angle has a determinant impact on these systems' atomistic structure and electronic properties. This includes the corrugation of individual layers, formation of stacking domains and other structural elements, and electronic structure changes due to the atomic reconstruction and superlattice effects. However, how these properties change with the twist angle (ta) is not yet well understood. Here, we monitor the change of twisted bilayer MoS2 characteristics as function of ta. We identify distinct structural regimes, with particular structural and electronic properties. We employ a hierarchical approach ranging from a reactive force field through the density-functional-based tight-binding approach and density-functional theory. To obtain a comprehensive overview, we analyzed a large number of twisted bilayers with twist angles in the range 0.2-59.6deg. Some systems include up to half a million atoms, making structure optimization and electronic property calculation challenging. For 13<ta<47, the structure is well-described by a moir\'e regime composed of two rigidly twisted monolayers. At small ta (ta<3 and 57<ta), a domain-soliton regime evolves, where the structure contains large triangular stacking domains, separated by a network of strain solitons and short-ranged high-energy nodes. The corrugation of the layers and the emerging superlattice of solitons and stacking domains affects the electronic structure. Emerging predominant characteristic features are Dirac cones at K and kagome bands. These features flatten for ta approaching 0 and 60deg. Our results show at which ta range the characteristic features of the reconstruction emerge and give rise to exciting electronics. We expect our findings also to be relevant for other twisted bilayer systems.

Emerging mesoscale flows and chaotic advection in dense active matter. (arXiv:2306.07172v1 [cond-mat.soft])
Yann-Edwin Keta, Juliane Klamser, Robert L. Jack, Ludovic Berthier

We study two models of overdamped self-propelled disks in two dimensions, with and without aligning interactions. Active mesoscale flows leading to chaotic advection emerge in both models in the homogeneous dense fluid away from dynamical arrest, forming streams and vortices reminiscent of multiscale flow patterns in turbulence. We show that the characteristics of these flows do not depend on the specific details of the active fluids, and result from the competition between crowding effects and persistent propulsions. Our results suggest that dense active fluids present a type of `active turbulence' distinct from collective flows reported in other types of active systems.

A statistical mechanical approach to fluid dynamics for simple dissipative fluids. (arXiv:2306.07182v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])
Gyula I. Tóth

In this paper, a statistical mechanical derivation of thermodynamically consistent fluid dynamical equations is presented for viscous and non-isothermal molecular fluids. The coarse-graining process is based on the combination of the Dirac-delta formalism of Irving and Kirkwood and the first-order Taylor expansion of the leading-order solution of the Chapman-Enskog theory. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic quantities and constitutive relations directly emerge in the proposed coarse-graining process, which results in a completion of the phenomenological theory.

Reliable machine learning potentials based on artificial neural network for graphene. (arXiv:2306.07246v1 [physics.comp-ph])
Akash Singh, Yumeng Li

Graphene is one of the most researched two dimensional (2D) material due to its unique combination of mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Special 2D structure of graphene enables it to exhibit a wide range of peculiar material properties like high Young's modulus, high specific strength etc. which are critical for myriad of applications including light weight structural materials, multi-functional coating and flexible electronics. It is quite challenging and costly to experimentally investigate graphene/graphene based nanocomposites, computational simulations such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are widely adopted for understanding the microscopic origins of their unique properties. However, disparate results were reported from computational studies, especially MD simulations using various empirical inter-atomic potentials. In this work, an artificial neural network based interatomic potential has been developed for graphene to represent the potential energy surface based on first principle calculations. The developed machine learning potential (MLP) facilitates high fidelity MD simulations to approach the accuracy of ab initio methods but with a fraction of computational cost, which allows larger simulation size/length, and thereby enables accelerated discovery/design of graphene-based novel materials. Lattice parameter, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), Young's modulus and yield strength are estimated using machine learning accelerated MD simulations (MLMD), which are compared to experimental/first principle calculations from previous literatures. It is demonstrated that MLMD can capture the dominating mechanism governing CTE of graphene, including effects from lattice parameter and out of plane rippling.

Directed Percolation in Temporal Networks. (arXiv:2107.01510v7 [physics.soc-ph] UPDATED)
Arash Badie-Modiri, Abbas K. Rizi, Márton Karsai, Mikko Kivelä

Connectivity and reachability on temporal networks, which can describe the spreading of a disease, decimation of information or the accessibility of a public transport system over time, have been among the main contemporary areas of study in complex systems for the last decade. However, while isotropic percolation theory successfully describes connectivity in static networks, a similar description has not been yet developed for temporal networks. Here address this problem and formalize a mapping of the concept of temporal network reachability to percolation theory. We show that the limited-waiting-time reachability, a generic notion of constrained connectivity in temporal networks, displays directed percolation phase transition in connectivity. Consequently, the critical percolation properties of spreading processes on temporal networks can be estimated by a set of known exponents characterising the directed percolation universality class. This result is robust across a diverse set of temporal network models with different temporal and topological heterogeneities, while by using our methodology we uncover similar reachability phase transitions in real temporal networks too. These findings open up an avenue to apply theory, concepts and methodology from the well-developed directed percolation literature to temporal networks.

Explaining the pseudogap through damping and antidamping on the Fermi surface by imaginary spin scattering. (arXiv:2107.06529v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Friedrich Krien, Paul Worm, Patrick Chalupa, Alessandro Toschi, Karsten Held

The mechanism of the pseudogap observed in hole-doped cuprates remains one of the central puzzles in condensed matter physics. We analyze this phenomenon via a Feynman-diagrammatic inspection of the Hubbard model. Our approach captures the pivotal interplay between Mott localization and Fermi surface topology beyond weak-coupling spin fluctuations, which would open a spectral gap near hot spots. We show that strong coupling and particle-hole asymmetry trigger a very different mechanism: a large imaginary part of the spin-fermion vertex promotes damping of antinodal fermions and, at the same time, protects the nodal Fermi arcs (antidamping). Our analysis naturally explains puzzling features of the pseudogap observed in experiments, such as Fermi arcs being cut off at the antiferromagnetic zone boundary and the subordinate role of hot spots.

The Effect of Twisting Angle on the Electronic Properties and Electron Transport and Hall Effect in the Twisted Circular and Rectangular Graphene and Graphene/Boron-Nitride Channels. (arXiv:2109.00718v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Farzaneh Shayeganfar, Ali Ramazani, Nicholas X Fang

Twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) including interlayer interaction and rotational disorder shows anomalous electron transport as a function of twist-angles (tAs). In this work, we address the electronic properties and electron transport of circular and rectangular twisted graphene nanoribbon (tGN) and twisted heterostructure of graphene/boron-nitride nanoribbon (thG/BNN) channels by applying the tight-binding Hamiltonian for two regimes of small and large tAs. Analysis of band structure reveals that the circular tGNs for small and large tAs have metallic behavior, while phase transition of metal to semiconductor occurs in rectangular case, sweeping small tAs to large ones. This implies a different transport mechanism depending on the tAs disorder, whiles the Klein paradox appears in the transmission and conductance of circular tGNs. We distinguish that the local electron states of rectangular tGNs with large tAs create degenerate multiflat bands, supporting decoupling of two ribbons and high conductance state. However, coupled two Dirac electron gases for small tAs of rectangular channel cause Klein paradox due to their resonant scattering. We compute the Hall conductivity in both tGNs for wide range of magnetic field. In circular tGNs the valance and conduction band energy is quantized into electron/hole-like Landau level, while for rectangular tGNs with applied magnetic field the Hall conductivity shows complex behavior. Moreover, we provide a platform for quantum transport and Hall effect of thG/BNN, which host a vast nontrivial emergent electronic state. Our findings suggest that circular/rectangular tGNs and thG/BNNs with new electron states of Moir\'e pattern besides the Klein paradox suitable for switching of several nanochannel.

Directed Percolation in Random Temporal Network Models with Heterogeneities. (arXiv:2110.07698v4 [physics.soc-ph] UPDATED)
Arash Badie-Modiri, Abbas K. Rizi, Márton Karsai, Mikko Kivelä

The event graph representation of temporal networks suggests that the connectivity of temporal structures can be mapped to a directed percolation problem. However, similar to percolation theory on static networks, this mapping is valid under the approximation that the structure and interaction dynamics of the temporal network are determined by its local properties, and otherwise, it is maximally random. We challenge these conditions and demonstrate the robustness of this mapping in case of more complicated systems. We systematically analyze random and regular network topologies and heterogeneous link-activation processes driven by bursty renewal or self-exciting processes using numerical simulation and finite-size scaling methods. We find that the critical percolation exponents characterizing the temporal network are not sensitive to many structural and dynamical network heterogeneities, while they recover known scaling exponents characterizing directed percolation on low dimensional lattices. While it is not possible to demonstrate the validity of this mapping for all temporal network models, our results establish the first batch of evidence supporting the robustness of the scaling relationships in the limited-time reachability of temporal networks.

Hierarchy of topological order from finite-depth unitaries, measurement and feedforward. (arXiv:2209.06202v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)
Nathanan Tantivasadakarn, Ashvin Vishwanath, Ruben Verresen

Long-range entanglement--the backbone of topologically ordered states--cannot be created in finite time using local unitary circuits, or equivalently, adiabatic state preparation. Recently it has come to light that single-site measurements provide a loophole, allowing for finite-time state preparation in certain cases. Here we show how this observation imposes a complexity hierarchy on long-range entangled states based on the minimal number of measurement layers required to create the state, which we call "shots". First, similar to Abelian stabilizer states, we construct single-shot protocols for creating any non-Abelian quantum double of a group with nilpotency class two (such as $D_4$ or $Q_8$). We show that after the measurement, the wavefunction always collapses into the desired non-Abelian topological order, conditional on recording the measurement outcome. Moreover, the clean quantum double ground state can be deterministically prepared via feedforward--gates which depend on the measurement outcomes. Second, we provide the first constructive proof that a finite number of shots can implement the Kramers-Wannier duality transformation (i.e., the gauging map) for any solvable symmetry group. As a special case, this gives an explicit protocol to prepare twisted quantum double for all solvable groups. Third, we argue that certain topological orders, such as non-solvable quantum doubles or Fibonacci anyons, define non-trivial phases of matter under the equivalence class of finite-depth unitaries and measurement, which cannot be prepared by any finite number of shots. Moreover, we explore the consequences of allowing gates to have exponentially small tails, which enables, for example, the preparation of any Abelian anyon theory, including chiral ones. This hierarchy paints a new picture of the landscape of long-range entangled states, with practical implications for quantum simulators.

Oscillating Solitons and AC Josephson Effect in Ferromagnetic Bose-Bose Mixtures. (arXiv:2209.11536v2 [cond-mat.quant-gas] UPDATED)
Sebastiano Bresolin, Arko Roy, Gabriele Ferrari, Alessio Recati, Nicolas Pavloff

Close to the demixing transition, the degree of freedom associated to relative density fluctuations of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is described by a non-dissipative Landau-Lifshitz equation. In the quasi one-dimensional weakly immiscible case, this mapping surprisingly predicts that a dark-bright soliton should oscillate when subject to a constant force favoring separation of the two components. We propose a realistic experimental implementation of this phenomenon which we interpret as a spin-Josephson effect in the presence of a movable barrier.

Orbital Fulde-Ferrell pairing state in moir\'e Ising superconductors. (arXiv:2211.07406v3 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)
Ying-Ming Xie, K. T. Law

In this work, we study superconducting moir\'e homobilayer transition metal dichalcogenides where the Ising spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is much larger than the moir\'e bandwidth. We call such noncentrosymmetric superconductors, moir\'e Ising superconductors. Due to the large Ising SOC, the depairing effect caused by the Zeeman field is negligible and the in-plane upper critical field ($B_{c2}$) is determined by the orbital effects. This allows us to study the effect of large orbital fields. Interestingly, when the applied in-plane field is larger than the conventional orbital $B_{c2}$, a finite-momentum pairing phase would appear which we call the orbital Fulde-Ferrell (FF) state. In this state, the Cooper pairs acquire a net momentum of $2q_B$ where $2q_B=eBd$ is the momentum shift caused by the magnetic field $B$ and $d$ denotes the layer separation. This orbital field-driven FF state is different from the conventional FF state driven by Zeeman effects in Rashba superconductors. Remarkably, we predict that the FF pairing would result in a giant superconducting diode effect under electric gating when layer asymmetry is induced. An upturn of the $B_{c2}$ as the temperature is lowered, coupled with the giant superconducting diode effect, would allow the detection of the orbital FF state.

Impurity and dispersion effects on the linear magnetoresistance in the quantum limit. (arXiv:2212.00383v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Shuai Li, Hai-Zhou Lu, X. C. Xie

Magnetoresistance, that is, the change of the resistance with the magnetic field, is usually a quadratic function of the field strength. A linear magnetoresistance usually reveals extraordinary properties of a system. In the quantum limit where only the lowest Landau band is occupied, a quantum linear magnetoresistance was believed to be the signature of the Weyl fermions with 3D linear dispersion. Here, we comparatively investigate the quantum-limit magnetoresistance of systems with different band dispersions as well as different types of impurities. We find that the magnetoresistance can also be linear for the quadratic energy dispersion. We show that both longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistance can be linear if long-range-Gaussian-type impurities dominate, but Coulomb-type impurities can only induce linear transverse magnetoresistance. Moreover, we find a negative longitudinal magnetoresistance in massless Dirac fermions, regardless of the impurity type, as a result of the combined effect of the linear dispersion and the scattering mechanism. Our findings well explain some of the linear magnetoresistance observed in the experiments and provide insights to the understanding of quantum-limit magnetoresistance.

Viability of rotation sensing using phonon interferometry in Bose-Einstein condensates. (arXiv:2212.11617v2 [cond-mat.quant-gas] UPDATED)
Charles W. Woffinden, Andrew J. Groszek, Guillaume Gauthier, Bradley J. Mommers, Michael. W. J. Bromley, Simon A. Haine, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Matthew J. Davis, Tyler W. Neely, Mark Baker

We demonstrate the use of a ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate as a rotation sensor by measuring the interference between two counter-propagating phonon modes imprinted azimuthally around the ring. We observe rapid decay of the excitations, quantified by quality factors of at most $Q \approx 27$. We numerically model our experiment using the c-field methodology, allowing us to estimate the parameters that maximise the performance of our sensor. We explore the damping mechanisms underlying the observed phonon decay, and identify two distinct Landau scattering processes that each dominate at different driving amplitudes and temperatures. Our simulations reveal that $Q$ is limited by strong damping of phonons even in the zero temperature limit. We perform an experimental proof-of-principle rotation measurement using persistent currents imprinted around the ring. We demonstrate a rotation sensitivity of up to $\Delta \Omega \approx 0.3$ rad/s from a single image, with a theoretically achievable value of $\Delta \Omega \approx 0.04$ rad/s in the atomic shot-noise limit. This is a significant improvement over the shot-noise-limited $\Delta \Omega \approx 1$ rad/s sensitivity obtained by Marti et al. [Phys. Rev. A 91, 013602 (2015)] for a similar setup.

Thermodynamics and its Prediction and CALPHAD Modeling: Review, State of the Art, and Perspectives. (arXiv:2301.02132v4 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)
Zi-Kui Liu

Thermodynamics is a science concerning the state of a system, whether it is stable, metastable, or unstable. The combined law of thermodynamics derived by Gibbs about 150 years ago laid the foundation of thermodynamics. In Gibbs combined law, the entropy production due to internal processes was not included, and the 2nd law was thus practically removed from the Gibbs combined law, so it is only applicable to systems under equilibrium. Gibbs further derived the classical statistical thermodynamics in terms of the probability of configurations in a system. With the quantum mechanics (QM) developed, the QM-based statistical thermodynamics was established and connected to classical statistical thermodynamics at the classical limit as shown by Landau. The development of density function theory (DFT) by Kohn and co-workers enabled the QM prediction of properties of the ground state of a system. On the other hand, the entropy production due to internal processes in non-equilibrium systems was studied separately by Onsager and Prigogine and co-workers. The digitization of thermodynamics was developed by Kaufman in the framework of the CALPHAD modeling of individual phases. Our recently termed zentropy theory integrates DFT and statistical mechanics through the replacement of the internal energy of each individual configuration by its DFT-predicted free energy. Furthermore, through the combined law of thermodynamics with the entropy production as a function of internal degrees of freedom, it is shown that the kinetic coefficient matrix of independent internal processes is diagonal with respect to the conjugate potentials in the combined law, and the cross phenomena represented by the phenomenological Onsager reciprocal relationships are due to the dependence of the conjugate potential of the molar quantity in a flux on nonconjugate potentials.

Entanglement in tripartitions of topological orders: a diagrammatic approach. (arXiv:2301.07763v3 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Ramanjit Sohal, Shinsei Ryu

Recent studies have demonstrated that measures of tripartite entanglement can probe data characterizing topologically ordered phases to which bipartite entanglement is insensitive. Motivated by these observations, we compute the reflected entropy and logarithmic negativity, a mixed state entanglement measure, in tripartitions of bosonic topological orders using the anyon diagrammatic formalism. We consider tripartitions in which three subregions meet at trijunctions and tetrajunctions. In the former case, we find a contribution to the negativity which distinguishes between Abelian and non-Abelian order while in the latter, we find a distinct universal contribution to the reflected entropy. Finally, we demonstrate that the negativity and reflected entropy are sensitive to the $F$-symbols for configurations in which we insert an anyon trimer, for which the Markov gap, defined as the difference between the reflected entropy and mutual information, is also found to be non-vanishing.

Anomalous Hall effect in type-I Weyl metals beyond the noncrossing approximation. (arXiv:2303.05829v2 [cond-mat.dis-nn] UPDATED)
Jia-Xing Zhang, Wei Chen

We study the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in tilted Weyl metals with Gaussian disorder due to the crossed X and {\Psi} diagrams in this work. The importance of such diagrams to the AHE has been demonstrated recently in two dimensional (2D) massive Dirac model and Rashba ferromagnets. It has been shown that the inclusion of such diagrams dramatically changes the total AHE in such systems. In this work, we show that the contributions from the X and {\Psi} diagrams to the AHE in tilted Weyl metals are of the same order of the non-crossing diagram we studied in a previous work, but with opposite sign. The total contribution of the X and {\Psi} diagrams cancels the majority part of the contribution from the non-crossing diagram in tilted Weyl metals, similar to the 2D massive Dirac model. We also discuss the difference of the contributions from the crossed diagrams between 2D massive Dirac model and the tilted Weyl metals. At last, we discuss the experimental relevance of observing the AHE due to the X and {\Psi} diagrams in type-I Weyl metal such as Co3Sn2S2.

Propagation of Dirac waves through various temporal interfaces, slabs, and crystals. (arXiv:2303.13741v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Seulong Kim, Kihong Kim

We investigate the influence of the temporal variations of various medium parameters on the propagation of Dirac-type waves in materials where the quasiparticles are described by a generalized version of the pseudospin-1/2 Dirac equation. Our considerations also include the propagation of electromagnetic waves in metamaterials with the Dirac-type dispersion. We focus on the variations of the scalar and vector potentials, mass, Fermi velocity, and tilt velocity describing the Dirac cone tilt. We derive the scattering coefficients associated with the temporal interfaces and slabs analytically and find that the temporal scattering is caused by the changes of the mass, Fermi velocity, and vector potential, but does not arise from the changes of the scalar potential and tilt velocity. We also explore the conditions under which the temporal Brewster effect and total interband transition occur and calculate the change in total wave energy. We examine bilayer Dirac temporal crystals where parameters switch between two different sets of values periodically and prove that these systems do not have momentum gaps. Finally, we assess the potential for observing these temporal scattering effects in experiments.

Hybrid aeromaterials for enhanced and rapid volumetric photothermal response. (arXiv:2303.14014v2 [] UPDATED)
Lena M. Saure (1), Niklas Kohlmann (2), Haoyi Qiu (1), Shwetha Shetty (3), Ali Shaygan Nia (4), Narayanan Ravishankar (3), Xinliang Feng (4), Alexander Szameit (5), Lorenz Kienle (2 and 6), Rainer Adelung (1 and 6), Fabian Schütt (1 and 6) ((1) Functional Nanomaterials, Department for Materials Science, Kiel, Germany, (2) Synthesis and Real Structure, Department for Materials Science, Kiel, Germany, (3) Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, (4) Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany, (5) Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock, Germany (6) Kiel Nano, Surface and Interface Science KiNSIS, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany)

Conversion of light into heat is essential for a broad range of technologies such as solar thermal heating, catalysis and desalination. Three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanomaterial-based aerogels have shown to hold great promise as photothermal transducer materials. However, till now, their light-to-heat conversion is limited by surface-near absorption, resulting in a strong heat localization only at the illuminated surface region, while most of the aerogel volume remains unused. We present an innovative fabrication concept for highly porous (>99.9%) photothermal hybrid aeromaterials, that enable an ultra-rapid and volumetric photothermal response with an enhancement by a factor of around 2.5 compared to the pristine variant. The hybrid aeromaterial is based on strongly light-scattering framework structures composed of interconnected hollow silicon dioxide (SiO${_2}$) microtubes, which are functionalized with extremely low amounts (in order of a few ${\mu}$g cm${^-}$${^3}$) of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets, acting as photothermal agents. Tailoring the density of rGO within the framework structure enables us to control both, light scattering and light absorption, and thus the volumetric photothermal response. We further show that by rapid and repeatable gas activation these transducer materials expand the field of photothermal applications, like untethered light-powered and -controlled microfluidic pumps and soft pneumatic actuators.

The Ginzburg-Landau theory of flat band superconductors with quantum metric. (arXiv:2303.15504v2 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)
Shuai A. Chen, K. T. Law

Recent experimental study unveiled highly unconventional phenomena in the superconducting twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) with ultra flat bands, which cannot be described by the conventional BCS theory. For example, given the small Fermi velocity of the flat bands, the predicted superconducting coherence length accordingly to BCS theory is more than 20 times shorter than the measured values. A new theory is needed to understand many of the unconventional properties of flat band superconductors. In this work, we establish a Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory from a microscopic flat band Hamiltonian. The GL theory shows how the properties of the physical quantities such as the critical temperature, the superconducting coherence length, the upper critical field and the superfluid density are governed by the quantum metric of the Bloch states. One key conclusion is that the superconducting coherence length is not determined by the Fermi velocity but by the size of the optimally localized Wannier functions which is limited by quantum metric. Applying the theory to TBG, we calculated the superconducting coherence length and the upper critical fields. The results match the experimental ones well without fine tuning of parameters. The established GL theory provides a new and general theoretical framework for understanding flat band superconductors with quantum metric.

Monolayer polar metals with large piezoelectricity derived from MoSi$_2$N$_4$. (arXiv:2304.04209v2 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
Yan Yin, Qihua Gong, Min Yi, Wanlin Guo

The advancement of two-dimensional polar metals tends to be limited by the incompatibility between electric polarity and metallicity as well as dimension reduction. Here, we report polar and metallic Janus monolayers of MoSi$_2$N$_4$ family by breaking the out-of-plane (OOP) structural symmetry through Z (P/As) substitution of N. Despite the semiconducting nature of MoSi$_2$X$_4$ (X=N/P/As), four Janus MoSi$_2$N$_{x}$Z$_{4-x}$ monolayers are found to be polar metals owing to the weak coupling between the conducting electrons and electric polarity. The metallicity is originated from the Z substitution induced delocalization of occupied electrons in Mo-d orbitals. The OOP electric polarizations around 10$-$203 pC/m are determined by the asymmetric OOP charge distribution due to the non-centrosymmetric Janus structure. The corresponding OOP piezoelectricity is further revealed as high as 39$-$153 pC/m and 0.10$-$0.31 pm/V for piezoelectric strain and stress coefficients, respectively. The results demonstrate polar metallicity and high OOP piezoelectricity in Janus MoSi$_2$N$_{x}$Z$_{4-x}$ monolayers and open new vistas for exploiting unusual coexisting properties in monolayers derived from MoSi$_2$N$_4$ family.

Mixed-State Quantum Spin Liquid in Kitaev Lindbladian: Dynamical Anyon Condensation. (arXiv:2305.09197v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Kyusung Hwang

We propose open quantum spin liquids as a novel platform for studying anyon condensation topological transitions. As a concrete example, we consider the Kitaev spin liquid (KSL) coupled to a Markovian environment via the Lindblad master equation approach. By a combined study of exact solutions and numerical approaches, we demonstrate a dynamical anyon condensation transition between the initially prepared pure KSL and mixed-state KSL arising in the steady state limit, induced by the environment's decoherence and dissipation effects. General principles of generating anyon condensations in open quantum spin liquids are discussed. This work presents mixed-state quantum spin liquids as a new route for anyon condensation transitions.

Interaction induced AC-Stark shift of exciton-polaron resonances. (arXiv:2306.01778v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Takahiro Uto, Bertrand Evrard, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Martin Kroner, Atac Imamoglu

Laser induced shift of atomic states due to the AC-Stark effect has played a central role in cold-atom physics and facilitated their emergence as analog quantum simulators. Here, we explore this phenomena in an atomically thin layer of semiconductor MoSe$_2$, which we embedded in a heterostructure enabling charge tunability. Shining an intense pump laser with a small detuning from the material resonances, we generate a large population of virtual collective excitations, and achieve a regime where interactions with this background population is the leading contribution to the AC-Stark shift. Using this technique we study how itinerant charges modify -- and dramatically enhance -- the interactions between optical excitations. In particular, our experiments show that the interaction between attractive polarons could be more than an order of magnitude stronger than those between bare excitons.

Study of gapped phases of 4d gauge theories using temporal gauging of the $\mathbb{Z}_N$ 1-form symmetry. (arXiv:2306.02485v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)
Mendel Nguyen, Yuya Tanizaki, Mithat Ünsal

To study gapped phases of $4$d gauge theories, we introduce the temporal gauging of $\mathbb{Z}_N$ $1$-form symmetry in $4$d quantum field theories (QFTs), thereby defining effective $3$d QFTs with $\widetilde{\mathbb{Z}}_N\times \mathbb{Z}_N$ $1$-form symmetry. In this way, spatial fundamental Wilson and 't Hooft loops are simultaneously genuine line operators. Assuming a mass gap and Lorentz invariant vacuum of the $4$d QFT, the $\widetilde{\mathbb{Z}}_N\times \mathbb{Z}_N$ symmetry must be spontaneously broken to an order-$N$ subgroup $H$, and we can classify the $4$d gapped phases by specifying $H$. This establishes the $1$-to-$1$ correspondence between the two classification schemes for gapped phases of $4$d gauge theories: One is the conventional Wilson-'t Hooft classification, and the other is the modern classification using the spontaneous breaking of $4$d $1$-form symmetry enriched with symmetry-protected topological states.

Topological phase transitions in a honeycomb ferromagnet with unequal Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. (arXiv:2306.02505v2 [cond-mat.other] UPDATED)
Heng Zhu, Hongchao Shi, Zhengguo Tang, Bing Tang

This theoretical research is devoted to study topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional honeycomb ferromagnetic lattice with unequal Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions for the two sublattices. With the help of a first-order Green function formalism, we analyze the influence of magnon-magnon interaction on the magnon band topology. It is found that the existence of the antichiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can led to a tilting of the renormalized magnon bands near the Dirac momenta. Then, the renormalized magnon band gaps at Dirac points have different widths. Through changing the temperature, we can observe the renormalized magnon band gap closing-reopening phenomenon, which corresponds to the topological phase transition. Our results show that the critical temperature of the topological phase transition is related to the strength of the antichiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

Light-induced half-quantized Hall effect and Axion insulator. (arXiv:2306.03187v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Fang Qin, Ching Hua Lee, Rui Chen

Motivated by the recent experimental realization of the half-quantized Hall effect phase in a three-dimensional (3D) semi-magnetic topological insulator [M. Mogi et al., Nature Physics 18, 390 (2022)], we propose a new scheme for realizing the half-quantized Hall effect and Axion insulator in experimentally mature 3D topological insulator heterostructures. Our approach involves optically pumping and/or magnetically doping the topological insulator surface, such as to break time reversal and gap out the Dirac cones. By toggling between left and right circularly polarized optical pumping, the sign of the half-integer Hall conductance from each of the surface Dirac cones can be controlled, such as to yield half-quantized ($0+1/2$), Axion ($-1/2+1/2=0$), and Chern ($1/2+1/2=1$) insulator phases. We substantiate our results based on detailed band structure and Berry curvature numerics on the Floquet Hamiltonian in the high-frequency limit. Our work showcases how new topological phases can be obtained through mature experimental approaches such as magnetic layer doping and circularly polarized laser pumping and opens up potential device applications such as a polarization chirality-controlled topological transistor.

Dynamics of Ordered Active Columns: Flows, Twists, and Waves. (arXiv:2306.03695v2 [cond-mat.soft] UPDATED)
S. J. Kole, Gareth P. Alexander, Ananyo Maitra, Sriram Ramaswamy

We formulate the hydrodynamics of active columnar phases, with two-dimensional translational order in the plane perpendicular to the columns and no elastic restoring force for relative sliding of the columns, using the general formalism of an active model H$^*$. Our predictions include: two-dimensional odd elasticity coming from three-dimensional plasmon-like oscillations of the columns in chiral polar phases with a frequency that is independent of wavenumber and non-analytic; a buckling instability coming from the generic force-dipole active stress analogous to the mechanical Helfrich-Hurault instability in passive materials; the selection of helical column undulations by apolar chiral activity.

Found 7 papers in prb
Date of feed: Tue, 13 Jun 2023 03:17:02 GMT

Search terms: (topolog[a-z]+)|(graphit[a-z]+)|(rhombohedr[a-z]+)|(graphe[a-z]+)|(chalcog[a-z]+)|(landau)|(weyl)|(dirac)|(STM)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ spectr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ prob[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(MoS.+\d+|MoS\d+)|(MoSe.+\d+|MoSe\d+)|(MoTe.+\d+|MoTe\d+)|(WS.+\d+|WS\d+)|(WSe.+\d+|WSe\d+)|(WTe.+\d+|WTe\d+)|(Bi\d+Rh\d+I\d+|Bi.+\d+.+Rh.+\d+.+I.+\d+.+)|(BiTeI)|(BiTeBr)|(BiTeCl)|(ZrTe5|ZrTe.+5)|(Pt2HgSe3|Pt.+2HgSe.+3)|(jacuting[a-z]+)

Laser single-shot magnetization reversal in ${\mathrm{Co}}_{1−x}{\mathrm{Lu}}_{x}$ nanostructures
Y. Peng, G. Malinowski, W. Zhang, D. Lacour, F. Montaigne, S. Mangin, and M. Hehn
Author(s): Y. Peng, G. Malinowski, W. Zhang, D. Lacour, F. Montaigne, S. Mangin, and M. Hehn

The magnetic properties of $\mathrm{Pt}\text{/}{Co}_{1−x}{\mathrm{Lu}}_{x}\text{/}\mathrm{Pt}$ thin films have been investigated. For an alloy thickness of 3 nm, the saturation magnetization linearly decreases from 830 kA/m to 400 kA/m for $x$ varying between 18% and 40%, including the proximity-ind…

[Phys. Rev. B 107, 214415] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Realization of linear magnetoelectric effect in the Dirac magnon system ${\mathrm{Cu}}_{3}{\mathrm{TeO}}_{6}$
Yongsen Tang, Lin Lin, Guanzhong Zhou, Wenjing Zhai, Lin Huang, Junhu Zhang, Shuhan Zheng, Meifeng Liu, Zhibo Yan, Xiangping Jiang, Xing'ao Li, and Jun-Ming Liu
Author(s): Yongsen Tang, Lin Lin, Guanzhong Zhou, Wenjing Zhai, Lin Huang, Junhu Zhang, Shuhan Zheng, Meifeng Liu, Zhibo Yan, Xiangping Jiang, Xing'ao Li, and Jun-Ming Liu

The three-dimensional antiferromagnet ${\mathrm{Cu}}_{3}{\mathrm{TeO}}_{6}$ has recently drawn significant attention due to the coexistence of Dirac and triply degenerated magnons. Herein, we report that ${\mathrm{Cu}}_{3}{\mathrm{TeO}}_{6}$, with cubic symmetry, exhibits novel spin-driven ferroelec…

[Phys. Rev. B 107, 214416] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Production of lattice gauge Higgs topological states in a measurement-only quantum circuit
Yoshihito Kuno and Ikuo Ichinose
Author(s): Yoshihito Kuno and Ikuo Ichinose

By imaginary-time evolution with the Hamiltonian, an arbitrary state arrives in the system's ground state. In this paper, we conjecture that this dynamics can be simulated by a measurement-only circuit (MOC), where each projective measurement is set in a suitable way. Based on terms in the Hamiltoni…

[Phys. Rev. B 107, 224305] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Extracting quantum-geometric effects from Ginzburg-Landau theory in a multiband Hubbard model
M. Iskin
Author(s): M. Iskin

We first apply the functional-integral approach to a multiband Hubbard model near the critical pairing temperature and derive a generic effective action that is quartic in the fluctuations of the pairing order parameter. Then we consider time-reversal-symmetric systems with uniform (i.e., at both lo…

[Phys. Rev. B 107, 224505] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Electronic structure evolution of the magnetic Weyl semimetal ${\mathrm{Co}}_{3}{\mathrm{Sn}}_{2}{\mathrm{S}}_{2}$ with hole and electron doping
Himanshu lohani, Paul Foulquier, Patrick Le Fèvre, François Bertran, Dorothée Colson, Anne Forget, and Véronique Brouet
Author(s): Himanshu lohani, Paul Foulquier, Patrick Le Fèvre, François Bertran, Dorothée Colson, Anne Forget, and Véronique Brouet

${\mathrm{Co}}_{3}{\mathrm{Sn}}_{2}{\mathrm{S}}_{2}$ has been established as a prototype of a magnetic Weyl semimetal, exhibiting a giant anomalous Hall effect in its ferromagnetic phase. An attractive feature of this material is that Weyl points lie close to the Fermi level, so one can expect a hig…

[Phys. Rev. B 107, 245119] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Frequency-dependent Faraday and Kerr rotation in anisotropic nonsymmorphic Dirac semimetals
Amarnath Chakraborty, Guang Bian, and Giovanni Vignale
Author(s): Amarnath Chakraborty, Guang Bian, and Giovanni Vignale

We calculate the frequency-dependent longitudinal and Hall conductivities and the Faraday and Kerr rotation angles for a single sheet of anisotropic Dirac semimetal protected by nonsymmorphic symmetry in the presence of a Zeeman term coupling to the out-of-plane component of the spin. While the Zeem…

[Phys. Rev. B 107, 245120] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Evolution of magnetism, valence, and crystal lattice in ${\mathrm{EuCd}}_{2}{\mathrm{As}}_{2}$ under pressure
Greeshma C. Jose, Kaleb Burrage, Jose L. Gonzalez Jimenez, Weiwei Xie, Barbara Lavina, Jiyong Zhao, Esen E. Alp, Dongzhou Zhang, Yuming Xiao, Yogesh K. Vohra, and Wenli Bi
Author(s): Greeshma C. Jose, Kaleb Burrage, Jose L. Gonzalez Jimenez, Weiwei Xie, Barbara Lavina, Jiyong Zhao, Esen E. Alp, Dongzhou Zhang, Yuming Xiao, Yogesh K. Vohra, and Wenli Bi

${\mathrm{EuCd}}_{2}{\mathrm{As}}_{2}$ has been proposed to be one of the ideal platforms as an intrinsic topological magnetic system, potentially hosting a single pair of Weyl points when it is tuned into the ferromagnetic state with spins aligned out of plane by either external pressure or chemica…

[Phys. Rev. B 107, 245121] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Found 2 papers in prl
Date of feed: Tue, 13 Jun 2023 03:17:04 GMT

Search terms: (topolog[a-z]+)|(graphit[a-z]+)|(rhombohedr[a-z]+)|(graphe[a-z]+)|(chalcog[a-z]+)|(landau)|(weyl)|(dirac)|(STM)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ spectr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ prob[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(MoS.+\d+|MoS\d+)|(MoSe.+\d+|MoSe\d+)|(MoTe.+\d+|MoTe\d+)|(WS.+\d+|WS\d+)|(WSe.+\d+|WSe\d+)|(WTe.+\d+|WTe\d+)|(Bi\d+Rh\d+I\d+|Bi.+\d+.+Rh.+\d+.+I.+\d+.+)|(BiTeI)|(BiTeBr)|(BiTeCl)|(ZrTe5|ZrTe.+5)|(Pt2HgSe3|Pt.+2HgSe.+3)|(jacuting[a-z]+)

Experimental Implementation of the Optical Fractional Fourier Transform in the Time-Frequency Domain
Bartosz Niewelt, Marcin Jastrzębski, Stanisław Kurzyna, Jan Nowosielski, Wojciech Wasilewski, Mateusz Mazelanik, and Michał Parniak
Author(s): Bartosz Niewelt, Marcin Jastrzębski, Stanisław Kurzyna, Jan Nowosielski, Wojciech Wasilewski, Mateusz Mazelanik, and Michał Parniak

The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT), a fundamental operation in physics that corresponds to a rotation of phase space by any angle, is also an indispensable tool employed in digital signal processing for noise reduction. Processing of optical signals in their time-frequency degree of freedom byp…

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 130, 240801] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Quantum Oscillations in Graphene Using Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators
Yawen Fang, Yang Xu, Kaifei Kang, Benyamin Davaji, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Amit Lal, Kin Fai Mak, Jie Shan, and B. J. Ramshaw
Author(s): Yawen Fang, Yang Xu, Kaifei Kang, Benyamin Davaji, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Amit Lal, Kin Fai Mak, Jie Shan, and B. J. Ramshaw

High quality factor surface acoustic wave resonators can be optimized to measure quantum transport in graphene at low temperatures and high magnetic fields.

[Phys. Rev. Lett. 130, 246201] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Found 1 papers in pr_res
Date of feed: Tue, 13 Jun 2023 03:17:02 GMT

Search terms: (topolog[a-z]+)|(graphit[a-z]+)|(rhombohedr[a-z]+)|(graphe[a-z]+)|(chalcog[a-z]+)|(landau)|(weyl)|(dirac)|(STM)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ spectr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ prob[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(MoS.+\d+|MoS\d+)|(MoSe.+\d+|MoSe\d+)|(MoTe.+\d+|MoTe\d+)|(WS.+\d+|WS\d+)|(WSe.+\d+|WSe\d+)|(WTe.+\d+|WTe\d+)|(Bi\d+Rh\d+I\d+|Bi.+\d+.+Rh.+\d+.+I.+\d+.+)|(BiTeI)|(BiTeBr)|(BiTeCl)|(ZrTe5|ZrTe.+5)|(Pt2HgSe3|Pt.+2HgSe.+3)|(jacuting[a-z]+)

Prevention of core particle depletion in stellarators by turbulence
H. Thienpondt, J. M. García-Regaña, I. Calvo, J. A. Alonso, J. L. Velasco, A. González-Jerez, M. Barnes, K. Brunner, O. Ford, G. Fuchert, J. Knauer, E. Pasch, L. Vanó, and and the Wendelstein 7-X Team
Author(s): H. Thienpondt, J. M. García-Regaña, I. Calvo, J. A. Alonso, J. L. Velasco, A. González-Jerez, M. Barnes, K. Brunner, O. Ford, G. Fuchert, J. Knauer, E. Pasch, L. Vanó, and and the Wendelstein 7-X Team

Collisional transport theory predicts particle depletion in the core of reactor-relevant fusion plasmas confined in stellarators. However, this prediction is contradicted by experiments. The conundrum has been solved by proving that turbulence provides the missing transport component that allows the reconciling of theory and experiment.

[Phys. Rev. Research 5, L022053] Published Mon Jun 12, 2023

Found 1 papers in nano-lett
Date of feed: Mon, 12 Jun 2023 21:12:57 GMT

Search terms: (topolog[a-z]+)|(graphit[a-z]+)|(rhombohedr[a-z]+)|(graphe[a-z]+)|(chalcog[a-z]+)|(landau)|(weyl)|(dirac)|(STM)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ spectr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ prob[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(MoS.+\d+|MoS\d+)|(MoSe.+\d+|MoSe\d+)|(MoTe.+\d+|MoTe\d+)|(WS.+\d+|WS\d+)|(WSe.+\d+|WSe\d+)|(WTe.+\d+|WTe\d+)|(Bi\d+Rh\d+I\d+|Bi.+\d+.+Rh.+\d+.+I.+\d+.+)|(BiTeI)|(BiTeBr)|(BiTeCl)|(ZrTe5|ZrTe.+5)|(Pt2HgSe3|Pt.+2HgSe.+3)|(jacuting[a-z]+)

[ASAP] Edge Channel Transmission through a Quantum Point Contact in the Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator Cadmium Arsenide
Simon Munyan, Arman Rashidi, Alexander C. Lygo, Robert Kealhofer, and Susanne Stemmer

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Nano Letters
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c01263