Found 32 papers in cond-mat
Date of feed: Mon, 03 Jul 2023 00:30:00 GMT

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Quantum geometry and bounds on dissipation in slowly driven quantum systems. (arXiv:2306.17220v1 [quant-ph])
Iliya Esin, Étienne Lantagne-Hurtubise, Frederik Nathan, Gil Refael

We show that the dissipation of energy in quasi-adiabatically driven quantum systems weakly coupled to a heat bath admits a description in terms of trajectories on a manifold characterized by the quantum geometry of the problem. For two-level systems, this description involves the quantum metric, further implying a connection between energy dissipation and the Berry curvature. As a consequence, we demonstrate that in systems slowly driven by a two-tone incommensurate drive, the dissipation rate has a lower bound proportional to an integer describing topological energy conversion between the two tones (provided certain symmetry conditions are respected). These results provide a design principle towards developing optimal driving protocols.


Negative refraction of Weyl phonons at twin quartz interfaces. (arXiv:2306.17227v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Juan D. F. Pottecher, Gunnar F. Lange, Cameron Robey, Bartomeu Monserrat, Bo Peng

In nature, $\alpha$-quartz crystals frequently form contact twins - two adjacent crystals with the same chemical structure but different crystallographic orientation, sharing a common lattice plane. As $\alpha$-quartz crystallises in a chiral space group, such twinning can occur between enantiomorphs with the same handedness or with opposite handedness. Here, we use first-principle methods to investigate the effect of twinning and chirality on the bulk and surface phonon spectra, as well as on the topological properties of phonons in $\alpha$-quartz. We demonstrate that, even though the dispersion appears identical for all twins along all high-symmetry lines and at all high-symmetry points in the Brillouin zone, the dispersions can be distinct at generic momenta for some twin structures. Furthermore, when the twinning occurs between different enantiomorphs, the charges of all Weyl nodal points flip, which leads to mirror symmetric isofrequency contours of the surface arcs. We show that this allows negative refraction to occur at interfaces between certain twins of $\alpha$-quartz.


Evidence of quasi-2D Fermi surface and non-trivial electronic topology in kagome lattice magnet GdV6Sn6 using de Haas van Alphen oscillations. (arXiv:2306.17282v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
C. Dhital, G. Pokharel, B. Wilson, I. Kendrick, M.M. Asmar, D. Graf, J. Guerrero-Sanchez, R. Gonzalez Hernandez, S.D. Wilson

The shape of the Fermi surface, the effective mass of carriers, and the topologically non-trivial nature of electronic bands of kagome magnet GdV6Sn6 are investigated using de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations measurements. Our temperature and angle dependent torque magnetometry measurements reveal at least seven different frequencies ranging from ~90 T up to ~9000 T. These frequencies correspond to extremal areas of Fermi surface ranging from ~1% up to 50% of the first Brillouin zone, qualitatively consistent with electronic structure calculations. The angle dependent dHvA oscillations frequencies indicate that all pockets of Fermi surface are mostly two-dimensional. We also find evidence of the presence of lighter (0.58 m0) as well as heavier (2.25 m0) electrons through the analysis of the temperature dependence of dominant frequencies, reflecting the features of correlated and Dirac like dispersions in the electronic structure. The estimation of the Berry phase indicates the topologically non-trivial nature of the lowest frequency band containing lighter electrons. This is consistent with the presence of Dirac-like linear dispersion in the electronic structure.


Determination of the Spacing Between Hydrogen-Intercalated Quasi-Free-Standing Monolayer Graphene and 6H-SiC(0001) Using Total-Reflection High-Energy Positron Diffraction. (arXiv:2306.17287v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Matthias Dodenhöft, Izumi Mochizuki, Ken Wada, Toshio Hyodo, Peter Richter, Philip Schädlich, Thomas Seyller, Christoph Hugenschmidt

We have investigated the structure of hydrogen-intercalated quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene (QFMLG) grown on 6H-SiC(0001) by employing total-reflection high-energy positron diffraction (TRHEPD). At least nine diffraction spots of the zeroth order Laue zone were resolved along <11-20> and three along <1-100>, which are assigned to graphene, SiC and higher order spots from multiple diffraction on both lattices. We further performed rocking curve analysis based on the full dynamical diffraction theory to precisely determine the spacing between QFMLG and the SiC substrate. Our study yields a spacing of d = 4.18(6)\r{A} that is in excellent agreement with the results from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations published previously.


Waveguiding in massive two-dimensional Dirac systems. (arXiv:2306.17299v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
V. G. Ibarra-Sierra, E. J. Robles-Raygoza, J. C. Sandoval-Santana, R. Carrillo-Bastos

The study of waveguide propagating modes is essential for achieving directional electronic transport in two-dimensional materials. Simultaneously, exploring potential gaps in these systems is crucial for developing devices akin to those employed in conventional electronics. Building upon the theoretical groundwork laid by Hartmann et al., which focused on implementing waveguides in pristine graphene monolayers, this work delves into the impact of a waveguide on two-dimensional gapped Dirac systems. We derive exact solutions encompassing wave functions and energy-bound states for a secant-hyperbolic attractive potential in gapped graphene, with a gap generated by sublattice asymmetry or a Kekul\'e-distortion. These solutions leverage the inherent properties and boundary conditions of the Heun polynomials. Our findings demonstrate that the manipulation of the number of accessible energy-bound states, i.e., transverse propagating modes, relies on factors such as the width and depth of the potential as well as the gap value of the two-dimensional material.


Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation in graphene by mid-infrared and terahertz fields. (arXiv:2306.17346v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Wenwen Mao, Angel Rubio, Shunsuke A. Sato

We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in graphene under mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz) fields based on a quantum master equation. Numerical simulations show that MIR-induced HHG in graphene can be enhanced by a factor of 10 for fifth harmonic and a factor of 25 for seventh harmonic under a THz field with a peak strength of 0.5 MV/cm by optimizing the relative angle between the MIR and THz fields. To identify the origin of this enhancement, we compare the fully dynamical calculations with a simple thermodynamic model and a nonequilibrium population model. The analysis shows that the enhancement of the high-order harmonics mainly results from a coherent coupling between MIR- and THz-induced transitions that goes beyond a simple THz-induced population contribution.


Scaling of Defect-Induced Low-Energy Majorana Excitations in the Kitaev Magnet $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$. (arXiv:2306.17380v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
K. Imamura, Y. Mizukami, O. Tanaka, R. Grasset, M. Konczykowski, N. Kurita, H. Tanaka, Y. Matsuda, M. G. Yamada, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi

The excitations in the Kitaev spin liquid (KSL) can be described by Majorana fermions, which have characteristic field dependence of bulk gap and topological edge modes. In the high-field state of layered honeycomb magnet $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$, experimental results supporting these Majorana features have been reported recently. However, there are challenges due to sample dependence and the impact of inevitable disorder on the KSL is poorly understood. Here we study how low-energy excitations are modified by introducing point defects in $\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ using electron irradiation, which induces site vacancies and exchange randomness. High-resolution measurements of the temperature dependence of specific heat $C(T)$ under in-plane fields $H$ reveal that while the field-dependent Majorana gap is almost intact, additional low-energy states with $C/T=A(H)T$ are induced by introduced defects. At low temperatures, we obtain the data collapse of $C/T\sim H^{-\gamma}(T/H)$ expected for a disordered quantum spin system, but with an anomalously large exponent $\gamma$. This leads us to find a new power-law scaling of the coefficient $A(H)$ with the field-sensitive Majorana gap. These results imply that the disorder induces low-energy linear Majorana excitations, which may be considered as a weak localization effect of Majorana fermions in the KSL.


Symmetric Mass Generation of K\"ahler-Dirac Fermions from the Perspective of Symmetry-Protected Topological Phases. (arXiv:2306.17420v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Yuxuan Guo, Yizhuang You

The K\"ahler-Dirac fermion, recognized as an elegant geometric approach, offers an alternative to traditional representations of relativistic fermions. Recent studies have demonstrated that symmetric mass generation (SMG) can precisely occur with two copies of K\"ahler-Dirac fermions across any spacetime dimensions. This conclusion stems from the study of anomaly cancellation within the fermion system. Our research provides an alternative understanding of this phenomenon from a condensed matter perspective, by associating the interacting K\"ahler-Dirac fermion with the boundary of bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases. We show that the low-energy bosonic fluctuations in a single copy of the K\"ahler-Dirac fermion can be mapped to the boundary modes of a $\mathbb{Z}_2$-classified bosonic SPT state, protected by an inversion symmetry universally across all dimensions. This implies that two copies of K\"ahler-Dirac fermions can always undergo SMG through interactions mediated by these bosonic modes. This picture aids in systematically designing SMG interactions for K\"ahler-Dirac fermions in any dimension. We present the exact lattice Hamiltonian of these interactions and validate their efficacy in driving SMG.


Correlation-driven non-trivial phases in single bi-layer Kagome intermetallics. (arXiv:2306.17503v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Aabhaas Vineet Mallik, Adhip Agarwala, Tanusri Saha-Dasgupta

Bi-layer Kagome compounds provide an exciting playground where the interplay of topology and strong correlations can give rise to exotic phases of matter. Motivated by recent first principles calculation on such systems (Phys. Rev. Lett 125, 026401), reporting stabilization of a Chern metal with topological nearly-flat band close to Fermi level, we build minimal models to study the effect of strong electron-electron interactions on such a Chern metal. Using approriate numerical and analytical techniques, we show that the topologically non-trivial bands present in this system at the Fermi energy can realize fractional Chern insulator states. We further show that if the time-reversal symmetry is restored due to destruction of magnetism by low dimensionality and fluctuation, the system can realize a superconducting phase in the presence of strong local repulsive interactions. Furthermore, we identify an interesting phase transition from the superconducting phase to a correlated metal by tuning nearest-neighbor repulsion. Our study uncovers a rich set of non-trivial phases realizable in this system, and contextualizes the physically meaningful regimes where such phases can be further explored.


Silicene on Ag(111): an honeycomb lattice without Dirac bands. (arXiv:2306.17524v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Sanjoy Kr. Mahatha, Paolo Moras, Valerio Bellini, Polina M. Sheverdyaeva, Claudia Struzzi, Luca Petaccia, Carlo Carbone

The discovery of (4x4) silicene formation on Ag(111) raised the question on whether silicene maintains its Dirac fermion character, similar to graphene, on a supporting substrate. Previous photoemission studies indicated that the {\pi}-band forms Dirac cones near the Fermi energy, while theoretical investigations found it shifted at deeper binding energy. By means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations we show instead that the {\pi}-symmetry states lose their local character and the Dirac cone fades out. The formation of an interface state of free-electron-like Ag origin is found to account for spectral features that were theoretically and experimentally attributed to silicene bands of {\pi}-character.


Conformal-invariance of 2D quantum turbulence in an exciton-polariton fluid of light. (arXiv:2306.17530v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])
Riccardo Panico, Alessandra S. Lanotte, Dimitrios Trypogeorgos, Giuseppe Gigli, Milena De Giorgi, Daniele Sanvitto, Dario Ballarini

The similarities of quantum turbulence with classical hydrodynamics allow quantum fluids to provide essential models of their classical analogue, paving the way for fundamental advances in physics and technology. Recently, experiments on 2D quantum turbulence observed the clustering of same-sign vortices in strong analogy with the inverse energy cascade of classical fluids. However, self-similarity of the turbulent flow, a fundamental concept in the study of classical turbulence, has so far remained largely unexplored in quantum systems. Here, thanks to the unique features of exciton-polaritons, we measure the scale invariance of velocity circulations and show that the cascade process follows the universal scaling of critical phenomena in 2D. We demonstrate this behaviour from the statistical analysis of the experimentally measured incompressible velocity field and the microscopic imaging of the quantum fluid. These results can find wide application in both quantum and classical 2D turbulence.


Fully gapped pairing state in spin-triplet superconductor UTe$_2$. (arXiv:2306.17549v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
S. Suetsugu, M. Shimomura, M. Kamimura, T. Asaba, H. Asaeda, Y. Kosuge, Y. Sekino, S. Ikemori, Y. Kasahara, Y. Kohsaka, M. Lee, Y. Yanase, H. Sakai, P. Opletal, Y. Tokiwa, Y. Haga, Y. Matsuda

Spin-triplet superconductors provide an ideal platform for realizing topological superconductivity with emergent Majorana quasiparticles. The promising candidate is the recently discovered superconductor UTe$ _2$, but the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter remains highly controversial. Here we determine the superconducting gap structure by the thermal conductivity of ultra-clean UTe$ _2$ single crystals. We find that the $a$ axis thermal conductivity divided by temperature $\kappa/T$ in zero-temperature limit is vanishingly small for both magnetic fields $\mathbf{H}||a$ and $\mathbf{H}||c$ axes up to $H/H_{c2}\sim 0.2$, demonstrating the absence of any types of nodes around $a$ axis contrary to the previous belief. The present results, combined with the reduction of the NMR Knight shift in the superconducting state, indicate that the superconducting order parameter belongs to the isotropic $A_u$ representation with a fully gapped pairing state, analogous to the B phase of superfluid $ ^3$He. These findings reveal that UTe$ _2$ is likely to be a long-sought three-dimensional (3D) strong topological superconductor characterized by a 3D winding number, hosting helical Majorana surface states on any crystal plane.


Superconducting, topological and transport properties of kagome metals CsTi$ _{3} $Bi$ _{5} $ and RbTi$ _{3} $Bi$ _{5} $. (arXiv:2306.17616v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Xin-Wei Yi, Zheng-Wei Liao, Jing-Yang You, Bo Gu, Gang Su

The recently discovered ATi$_3$Bi$_5$ (A=Cs, Rb) exhibit intriguing quantum phenomena including superconductivity, electronic nematicity, and abundant topological states, which provide promising platforms for studying kagome superconductivity, band topology, and charge orders. In this work, we comprehensively study various properties of ATi$_3$Bi$_5$ including superconductivity under pressure and doping, band topology under pressure, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, electrical resistance, and spin Hall conductivity (SHC) using first-principles calculations. Calculated superconducting transition temperature ($\mathrm{ T_{c}}$) of CsTi$_3$Bi$_5$ and RbTi$_3$Bi$_5$ at ambient pressure are about 1.85 and 1.92K. When subject to pressure, $\mathrm{ T_{c}}$ of CsTi$_3$Bi$_5$ exhibits a special valley and dome shape, which arises from quasi-two-dimensional to three-dimensional isotropic compression within the context of an overall decreasing trend. Furthermore, $\mathrm{ T_{c}}$ of RbTi$_3$Bi$_5$ can be effectively enhanced up to 3.09K by tuning the kagome van Hove singularities (VHSs) and flat band through doping. Pressure can also induce abundant topological surface states at the Fermi energy ($\mathrm{E}_{\mathrm{F}}$) and tune VHSs across $\mathrm{E}_{\mathrm{F}}$. Additionally, our transport calculations are in excellent agreement with recent experiments, confirming the absence of charge density wave. Notably, SHC of CsTi$_3$Bi$_5$ can reach as large as 226$ \hbar\cdot (e\cdot \Omega \cdot cm) ^{-1} $ at $\mathrm{E}_{\mathrm{F}}$. Our work provides a timely and detailed analysis of the rich physical properties for ATi$_3$Bi$_5$, offering valuable insights for further explorations and understandings on these intriguing superconducting materials.


Tunable Non-Additivity in Casimir-Lifshitz Force Between Graphene Gratings. (arXiv:2306.17640v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Youssef Jeyar, Minggang Luo, Kevin Austry, Brahim Guizal, Yi Zheng, H. B. Chan, Mauro Antezza

We investigate the Casimir-Lifshitz force (CLF) between two identical graphene strip gratings, laid on finite dielectric substrate. By using the scattering matrix (S-matrix) approach derived from the Fourier Modal Method with local basis functions (FMM-LBF), we fully take into account the high-order electromagnetic diffractions, the multiple scattering and the exact 2D feature of the graphene strips. We show that the non-additivity, which is one of the most interesting features of the CLF in general, is significantly high and can be modulated in situ without any change in the actual material geometry, by varying the graphene chemical potential. This study can open the deeper experimental exploration of the non-additive features of CLF with micro- or nano-electromechanical graphene-based systems.


Substrate Induced van der Waals Force Effect on the Stability of Violet Phosphorous. (arXiv:2306.17681v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Sarabpreet Singh, Mahdi Ghafariasl, Hsin-Yu Ko, Sampath Gamage, Robert A. Distasio Jr., Michael Snure, Yohannes Abate

The van der Waals (vdWs) forces between monolayers has been a unique distinguishing feature of exfoliable materials since the first isolation of graphene. However, the vdWs interaction of exfoliable materials with their substrates and how this interface force influences their interaction with the environment is yet to be well understood.Here, we experimentally and theoretically unravel the role of vdWs forces between the recently rediscovered wide band gap p-type vdW semiconductor violet phosphorus (VP), with various substrates (including, SiO$_2$, mica, Si, Au) and quantify how VP stability in air and its interaction with its surroundings is influenced by the interface force.Using a combination of infrared nanoimaging and theoretical modeling we find the vdWs force at the interface to be a main factor that influences how VP interacts with its surroundings.In addition, the hydrophobicity of the substrate and the substrate surface roughness modify the vdWs force there by influencing VP stability. Our results could guide in the selection of substrates when vdW materials are prepared and more generally highlight the key role of interface force effects that could significantly alter physical properties of vdWs materials.


Orbital-selective correlations for topology in FeSe$_{x}$Te$_{1-x}$. (arXiv:2306.17739v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Zhiguang Liao, Rong Yu, Jian-Xin Zhu, Qimiao Si

Strong correlations lead to emergent excitations at low energies. When combined with symmetry constraints, they may produce topological electronic states near the Fermi energy. Within this general framework, here we address the topological features in iron-based superconductors. We examine the effects of orbital-selective correlations on the band inversion in the iron chalcogenide FeSe$_{x}$Te$_{1-x}$ near its doping of optimal superconductivity, within a multiorbital model and using a $U(1)$ slave spin theory. The orbital selectivity of the quasiparticle spectral weight, along with its counterpart of the energy level renormalization, leads to a band inversion and Dirac node formation pinned to the immediate vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our work demonstrates both the naturalness and robustness of the topological properties in FeSe$_{x}$Te$_{1-x}$, and uncovers a new setting in which strong correlations and space-group symmetry cooperate in generating strongly correlated electronic topology.


Exploring the lead-free mixed-metal chalcohalide Sn$_2$BCh$_2$X$_3$ materials space for photovoltaic applications. (arXiv:2306.17745v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Pascal Henkel, Jingrui Li, G. Krishnamurthy Grandhi, Paola Vivo, Patrick Rinke

Quaternary mixed-metal chalcohalides (Sn$_2$BCh$_2$X$_3$) are emerging as promising lead-free perovskite-inspired photovoltaic absorbers. Motivated by recent developments of a first Sn$_2$BCh$_2$X$_3$-based device, we used density functional theory to identify lead-free Sn$_2$BCh$_2$X$_3$ materials that are structurally and energetically stable within Cmcm, Cmc2$_1$ and P2$_1$/c space groups and have a band gap in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 eV to cover out- and indoor photovoltaic applications. A total of 27 Sn$_2$BCh$_2$X$_3$ materials were studied, including Sb, Bi, In for B-site, S, Se, Te for Ch-site and Cl, Br, I for X-site. We identified 12 materials with a direct band gap that meet our requirements, namely: Sn$_2$InS$_2$Br$_3$, Sn$_2$InS$_2$I$_3$, Sn$_2$InSe$_2$Cl$_3$, Sn$_2$InSe$_2$Br$_3$, Sn$_2$InTe$_2$Br$_3$, Sn$_2$InTe$_2$Cl$_3$, Sn$_2$SbS$_2$I$_3$, Sn$_2$SbSe$_2$Cl$_3$, Sn$_2$SbSe$_2$I$_3$, Sn$_2$SbTe$_2$Cl$_3$, Sn$_2$BiS$_2$I$_3$ and Sn$_2$BiTe$_2$Cl$_3$. A database scan reveals that 9 out of 12 are new compositions. For all 27 materials, P2$_1$/c is the thermodynamically preferred structure, followed by Cmc2$_1$. In Cmcm and Cmc2$_1$ mainly direct gaps occur, whereas mostly indirects in P2$_1$/c. To open up the possibility of band gap tuning in the future, we identified 12 promising Sn$_2$B$_{1-{a}}$B$'_{a}$Ch$_{2-{b}}$Ch$'_{b}$X$_{3-{c}}$X$_{c}$ alloys which fulfill our requirements and additional 69 materials by combining direct and indirect band gap compounds.


Band gaps of long-period polytypes of IV, IV-IV, and III-V semiconductors estimated with an Ising-type additivity model. (arXiv:2306.17756v1 [physics.chem-ph])
Raghunathan Ramakrishnan, Shruti Jain

We apply the next-nearest-neighbor-interaction model to estimate the band gaps of the polytypes of group IV elements (C, Si, and Ge)and binary compounds of groups: IV-IV (SiC, GeC, and GeSi), and III-V (nitride, phosphide, and arsenide of B, Al, and Ga). The band gap models are based on reference values of the simplest polytypes comprising 2-6 bilayers calculated with the hybrid density functional approximation, HSE06. We report four models capable of estimating band gaps of nine polytypes containing 7 and 8 bilayers with an average error of less than ~0.05 eV. We apply the best model with an error of < 0.04 eV to predict the band gaps of 497 polytypes with up to 15 bilayers in the unit cell, providing a comprehensive view of the variation in the electronic structure with the degree of hexagonality of the crystal structure. Within our enumeration, we identify four rhombohedral polytypes of SiC -- 9R, 12R, 15R(1), and 15R(2) -- and perform detailed stability and band structure analysis. Of these, 15R(1) that has not been experimentally characterized has the widest band gap (> 3.4 eV); phonon analysis and cohesive energy reveal 15R(1)-SiC to be metastable. Additionally, we model the energies of valence and conduction bands of the rhombohedral phases of SiC at the high-symmetry points of the Brillouin zone and predict band structure characteristics around the Fermi level. The models presented in this study may aid in identifying polytypic phases suitable for various applications, such as wide-gap SiC relevant to high-voltage applications. In particular, the method holds promise for forecasting electronic properties of long-period and ultra-long-period polytypes for which accurate first-principles modeling is computationally challenging.


Boundary-induced topological transition in an open SSH model. (arXiv:2306.17761v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Alexei Bissonnette, Nicolas Delnour, Andrew Mckenna, Hichem Eleuch, Michael Hilke, Richard MacKenzie

We consider a Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chain to which we attach a semi-infinite undimerized chain (lead) to both ends. We study the effect of the openness of the SSH model on its properties. A representation of the infinite system using an effective Hamiltonian allows us to examine its low-energy states in more detail. We show that, as one would expect, the topological edge states hybridize as the coupling between the systems is increased. As this coupling grows, these states are suppressed, while a new type of edge state emerges from the trivial topological phase. These new states, referred to as phase-inverted edge states, are localized low-energy modes very similar to the edge states of the topological phase. Interestingly, localization occurs on a new shifted interface, moving from the first (and last) site to the second (and second to last) site. This suggests that the topology of the system is strongly affected by the leads, with three regimes of behavior. For very small coupling the system is in a well-defined topological phase; for very large coupling it is in the opposite phase; in the intermediate region, the system is in a transition regime.


A Twist On Active Membranes: Odd Mechanics, Spontaneous Flows and Shape Instabilities. (arXiv:2306.17767v1 [cond-mat.soft])
Sami C. Al-Izzi, Gareth P. Alexander

Living systems are chiral on multiple scales, from constituent biopolymers to large scale morphology, and their active mechanics is both driven by chiral components and serves to generate chiral morphologies. We describe the mechanics of active fluid membranes in coordinate-free form, with focus on chiral contributions to the stress. These generate geometric `odd elastic' forces in response to mean curvature gradients but directed perpendicularly. As a result, they induce tangential membrane flows that circulate around maxima and minima of membrane curvature. When the normal viscous force amplifies perturbations the membrane shape can become linearly unstable giving rise to shape instabilities controlled by an active Scriven-Love number. We describe examples for spheroids, membranes tubes and helicoids, discussing the relevance and predictions such examples make for a variety of biological systems from the sub-cellular to tissue level.


Giant lattice softening at a Lifshitz transition in Sr$_{2}$RuO$_{4}$. (arXiv:2306.17835v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Hilary M. L. Noad, Kousuke Ishida, You-Sheng Li, Elena Gati, Veronika C. Stangier, Naoki Kikugawa, Dmitry A. Sokolov, Michael Nicklas, Bongjae Kim, Igor I. Mazin, Markus Garst, Jörg Schmalian, Andrew P. Mackenzie, Clifford W. Hicks

The interplay of electronic and structural degrees of freedom in solids is a topic of intense research. Experience and intuition suggest that structural changes drive conduction electron behavior, because the large number of valence electrons dominate the structural properties. As part of a seminal paper written over sixty years ago, Lifshitz discussed an alternative possibility: lattice softening driven by conduction electrons at topological Fermi surface transitions. The effect he predicted, however, was small, and has not been convincingly observed. Using measurements of the stress-strain relationship in the ultra-clean metal Sr$_{2}$RuO$_{4}$, we reveal a huge softening of the Young's modulus at a Lifshitz transition of a two-dimensional Fermi surface, and show that it is indeed entirely driven by the conduction electrons of the relevant energy band.


Majorana-mediated thermoelectric transport in multiterminal junctions. (arXiv:2306.17845v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Raffael L. Klees, Daniel Gresta, Jonathan Sturm, Laurens W. Molenkamp, Ewelina M. Hankiewicz

The unambiguous identification of Majorana zero modes (MZMs) is one of the most outstanding problems of condensed matter physics. Thermal transport provides a detection tool that is sensitive to these chargeless quasiparticles. We study thermoelectric transport between metallic leads transverse to a Josephson junction. The central double quantum dot hosts conventional or topological Andreev states that depend on the phase difference $\phi$. We show that the presence of MZMs can be identified by a significant amplification of both the electrical and thermal conductance at $\phi \approx \pi$ as well as the Seebeck coefficient at $\phi \approx 0$. We further investigate the robustness of our results against Cooper pair splitting processes.


Network bypasses sustain complexity. (arXiv:2207.06813v2 [physics.soc-ph] UPDATED)
Ernesto Estrada, Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes, Lucas Lacasa

Real-world networks are neither regular nor random, a fact elegantly explained by mechanisms such as the Watts-Strogatz or the Barabasi-Albert models, among others. Both mechanisms naturally create shortcuts and hubs, which while enhancing network's connectivity, also might yield several undesired navigational effects: they tend to be overused during geodesic navigational processes -- making the networks fragile -- and provide suboptimal routes for diffusive-like navigation. Why, then, networks with complex topologies are ubiquitous? Here we unveil that these models also entropically generate network bypasses: alternative routes to shortest paths which are topologically longer but easier to navigate. We develop a mathematical theory that elucidates the emergence and consolidation of network bypasses and measure their navigability gain. We apply our theory to a wide range of real-world networks and find that they sustain complexity by different amounts of network bypasses. At the top of this complexity ranking we found the human brain, which points out the importance of these results to understand the plasticity of complex systems.


Gravitational lensing and tunneling of mechanical waves in synthetic curved spacetime. (arXiv:2210.00464v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)
Sayan Jana, Lea Sirota

Black holes are considered among the most fascinating objects that exist in our universe, since in the classical formalism nothing, even no light, can escape from their vicinity due to gravity. The gravitational potential causes the light to bend towards the hole, which is known by gravitational lensing. Here we present a synthetic realization of this phenomenon in a lab-scale two-dimensional network of mechanical circuits, based on analogous condensed matter formalism of Weyl semimetals with inhomogeneous nodal tilt profiles. Some of the underlying network couplings turn out as unstable and non-reciprocal, and are implemented by embedded active feedback interactions in an overall stabilized structure. We demonstrate the lensing by propagating mechanical wavepackets through the network with a programmed funnel-like potential, achieving wave bending towards the circle center. We then demonstrate the versatility of our platform by reprogramming it to mimic quantum tunneling of particles through the event horizon, known by Hawking radiation, achieving an exceptional correspondence to the original mass loss rate within the hole. The network couplings and the potential can be further reprogrammed to realize other curvatures and associated relativistic phenomena.


Martinize2 and Vermouth: Unified Framework for Topology Generation. (arXiv:2212.01191v2 [q-bio.QM] UPDATED)
Peter C. Kroon, Fabian Grünewald, Jonathan Barnoud, Marco van Tilburg, Paulo C. T. Souza, Tsjerk A. Wassenaar, Siewert-Jan Marrink

Ongoing advances in force field and computer hardware development enable the use of molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate increasingly complex systems with the ultimate goal of reaching cellular complexity. At the same time, rational design by high-throughput (HT) simulations is another forefront of MD. In these areas, the Martini coarse-grained force field, especially the latest version (i.e. v3), is being actively explored because it offers enhanced spatial-temporal resolution. However, the automation tools for preparing simulations with the Martini force field, accompanying the previous version, were not designed for HT simulations or studies of complex cellular systems. Therefore, they become a major limiting factor. To address these shortcomings, we present the open-source Vermouth python library. Vermouth is designed to become the unified framework for developing programs, which prepare, run, and analyze Martini simulations of complex systems. To demonstrate the power of the Vermouth library, the Martinize2 program is showcased as a generalization of the martinize script, originally aimed to set up simulations of proteins. In contrast to the previous version, Martinize2 automatically handles protonation states in proteins and post-translation modifications, offers more options to fine-tune structural biases such as the elastic network, and can convert non-protein molecules such as ligands. Finally, Martinize2 is used in two high-complexity benchmarks. The entire I-TASSER protein template database as well as a subset of 200,000 structures from the AlphaFold Protein Structure Database are converted to CG resolution and we illustrate how the checks on input structure quality can safeguard high-throughput applications.


Multi-k magnetic structure and large anomalous Hall effect in candidate magnetic Weyl semimetal NdAlGe. (arXiv:2302.05596v2 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
C. Dhital, R. L. Dally, R. Ruvalcaba, R. Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. Guerrero-Sanchez, H. B. Cao, Q. Zhang, W. Tian, Y. Wu, M. D. Frontzek, S. K. Karna, A. Meads, B. Wilson, R. Chapai, D. Graf, J. Bacsa, R. Jin, J.F. DiTusa

The magnetic structure, magnetoresistance, and Hall effect of non-centrosymmetric magnetic semimetal NdAlGe are investigated revealing an unusual magnetic state and anomalous transport properties that are associated with the electronic structure of this non-centrosymmetric compound. The magnetization and magnetoresistance measurements are both highly anisotropic and indicate an Ising-like magnetic system. The magnetic structure is complex in that it involves three magnetic ordering vectors including an incommensurate spin density wave and commensurate ferrimagnetic state in zero field. We have discovered a large anomalous Hall conductivity that reaches = 430 {\Omega}-1cm-1 implying that it originates from an intrinsic Berry curvature effect stemming from Weyl nodes found in the electronic structure. These electronic structure calculations indicate the presence of nested Fermi surface pockets with nesting wave vectors similar to the measured magnetic ordering wavevector and the presence of Weyl nodes in proximity to the Fermi surface. We associate the incommensurate magnetic structure with the large anomalous Hall response to be the result of the combination of Fermi surface nesting and the Berry curvature associated with Weyl nodes.


Less is different: why sparse networks with inhibition differ from complete graphs. (arXiv:2302.07927v2 [cond-mat.dis-nn] UPDATED)
Gustavo Menesse, Osame Kinouchi

In neuronal systems, inhibition contributes to stabilizing dynamics and regulating pattern formation. Through developing mean field theories of neuronal models, using complete graph networks, inhibition is commonly viewed as one ``control parameter'' of the system, promoting an absorbing phase transition. Here, we show that for low connectivity sparse networks, inhibition weight is not a control parameter of the transition. We present analytical and simulation results using generic stochastic integrate-and-fire neurons that, under specific restrictions, become other simpler stochastic neuron models common in literature, which allow us to show that our results are valid for those models as well. We also give a simple explanation about why the inhibition role depends on topology, even when the topology has a dimensionality greater than the critical one. The absorbing transition independence of the inhibitory weight may be an important feature of a sparse network, as it will allow the network to maintain a near-critical regime, self-tuning average excitation, but at the same time, have the freedom to adjust inhibitory weights for computation, learning, and memory, exploiting the benefits of criticality.


The Ginzburg-Landau theory of flat band superconductors with quantum metric. (arXiv:2303.15504v3 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)
Shuai A. Chen, K. T. Law

Recent experimental study unveiled highly unconventional phenomena in the superconducting twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) with ultra flat bands, which cannot be described by the conventional BCS theory. For example, given the small Fermi velocity of the flat bands, the predicted superconducting coherence length accordingly to BCS theory is more than 20 times shorter than the measured values. A new theory is needed to understand many of the unconventional properties of flat band superconductors. In this work, we establish a Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory from a microscopic flat band Hamiltonian. The GL theory shows how the properties of the physical quantities such as the critical temperature, the superconducting coherence length, the upper critical field and the superfluid density are governed by the quantum metric of the Bloch states. One key conclusion is that the superconducting coherence length is not determined by the Fermi velocity but by the size of the optimally localized Wannier functions which is limited by quantum metric. Applying the theory to TBG, we calculated the superconducting coherence length and the upper critical fields. The results match the experimental ones well without fine tuning of parameters. The established GL theory provides a new and general theoretical framework for understanding flat band superconductors with quantum metric.


Strongly Nonlinear Topological Phases of Cascaded Topoelectrical Circuits. (arXiv:2304.05236v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Jijie Tang, Fangyuan Ma, Feng Li, Honglian Guo, Di Zhou

Circuits provide ideal platforms of topological phases and matter, yet the study of topological circuits in the strongly nonlinear regime, has been lacking. We propose and experimentally demonstrate strongly nonlinear topological phases and transitions in one-dimensional electrical circuits composed of nonlinear capacitors. Nonlinear topological interface modes arise on domain walls of the circuit lattices, whose topological phases are controlled by the amplitudes of nonlinear voltage waves. Experimentally measured topological transition amplitudes are in good agreement with those derived from nonlinear topological band theory. Our prototype paves the way towards flexible metamaterials with amplitude-controlled rich topological phases and is readily extendable to two and three-dimensional systems that allow novel applications.


Low-dimensional quantum gases in curved geometries. (arXiv:2305.05584v2 [cond-mat.quant-gas] UPDATED)
A. Tononi, L. Salasnich

Atomic gases confined in curved geometries display distinctive features that are absent in their flat counterparts, such as periodic boundaries, local curvature, and nontrivial topologies. The recent experiments with shell-shaped quantum gases and the study of one dimensional rings point out that the manifold of a quantum gas could soon become a controllable feature, thus allowing to address the fundamental study of curved many-body quantum systems. Here, we review the main geometries realized in the experiments, analyzing the theoretical and experimental status on their phase transitions and on the superfluid dynamics. In perspective, we delineate the study of vortices, the few-body physics, and the search for analog models in various curved geometries as the most promising research areas.


The structural stability and polarization analysis of rhombohedral phase HfO2. (arXiv:2306.06018v3 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
Wenbin Ouyang, Fanghao Jia, Wei Ren

A comparative theoretical study is presented for the rhombohedral R3 and R3m phase HfO2, of two possible forms in its heavily Zr-doped ferroelectric thin films found recently in experiments. Their structural stability and polarization under the in-plane compressive strain are comprehensively investigated. We discovered that there is a phase transition from R3 to R3m phase under the biaxial compressive strain. Both the direction and amplitude of their polarization can be tuned by the strain. By performing a symmetry mode analysis, we are able to understand its improper nature of the ferroelectricity. These results may help to shed light on the understanding of the hafnia ferroelectric thin films.


Closest Wannier functions to a given set of localized orbitals. (arXiv:2306.15296v2 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
Taisuke Ozaki

A non-iterative method is presented to calculate the closest Wannier functions (CWFs) to a given set of localized guiding functions, such as atomic orbitals, hybrid atomic orbitals, and molecular orbitals, based on minimization of a distance measure function. It is shown that the minimization is directly achieved by a polar decomposition of a projection matrix via singular value decomposition, making iterative calculations and complications arising from the choice of the gauge irrelevant. The disentanglement of bands is inherently addressed by introducing a smoothly varying window function and a greater number of Bloch functions, even for isolated bands. In addition to atomic and hybrid atomic orbitals, we introduce embedded molecular orbitals in molecules and bulks as the guiding functions, and demonstrate that the Wannier interpolated bands accurately reproduce the targeted conventional bands of a wide variety of systems including Si, Cu, the TTF-TCNQ molecular crystal, and a topological insulator of Bi$_2$Se$_3$. We further show the usefulness of the proposed method in calculating effective atomic charges. These numerical results not only establish our proposed method as an efficient alternative for calculating WFs, but also suggest that the concept of CWFs can serve as a foundation for developing novel methods to analyze electronic structures and calculate physical properties.