Found 34 papers in cond-mat
Date of feed: Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:30:00 GMT

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Noise probing of topological band gaps in dispersionless quantum states. (arXiv:2309.00042v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Alexander Kruchkov, Shinsei Ryu

We uncover a useful connection between the integrated current noise $S(\omega)$ and the topological band gap in dispersionless quantum states, $\int d \omega [ \mathcal S^{\text{flat}}_{xx} + \mathcal S^{\text{flat}}_{yy} ] = C e^2 \Delta^2$ (in units $\hbar$$=$$1$), where $C$ is the Chern number, $e$ is electric charge, and $\Delta$ is the topological band gap. This relationship may serve as a working principle for a new experimental probe of topological band gaps in flat band materials. Possible applications include moir\'e systems, such as twisted bilayer graphene and twisted transition metal dichalcogenides, where a band gap measurement in meV regime presents an experimental challenge.

On the local aspect of valleytronics. (arXiv:2309.00091v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Zheng-Han Huang, Feng-Wu Chen, Yu-Shu G. Wu

Valley magnetic moments play a crucial role in valleytronics in 2D hexagonal materials. Traditionally, based on studies of quantum states in homogeneous bulks, it is widely believed that only materials with broken structural inversion symmetry can exhibit nonvanishing valley magnetic moments. Such constraint excludes from relevant applications those with inversion symmetry, as specifically exemplified by gapless monolayer graphene despite its technological advantage in routine growth and production. This work revisits valley-derived magnetic moments in a broad context covering inhomogeneous structures as well. It generalizes the notion of valley magnetic moment for a state from an integrated total quantity to the local field called "local valley magnetic moment" with space-varying distribution. In suitable inversion-symmetric structures with inhomogeneity, e.g., zigzag nanoribbons of gapless monolayer graphene, it is shown that the local moment of a state can be nonvanishing with sizable magnitude, while the corresponding total moment is subject to the broken symmetry constraint. Moreover, it is demonstrated that such local moment can interact with space-dependent electric and magnetic fields manifesting pronounced field effects and making possible a local valley control with external fields. Overall, a path to "local valleytronics" is illustrated which exploits local valley magnetic moments for device applications, relaxes the broken symmetry constraint on materials, and expands flexibility in the implementation of valleytronics.

Topological phase transition between composite-fermion and Pfaffian daughter states near {\nu} = 1/2 FQHS. (arXiv:2309.00111v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Siddharth Kumar Singh, C. Wang, C. T. Tai, C. S. Calhoun, A. Gupta, K. W. Baldwin, L. N. Pfeiffer, M. Shayegan

$\nu$=1/2 is among the most enigmatic many-body phases in two-dimensional electron systems as it appears in the ground-state rather than an excited Landau level. It is observed in wide quantum wells where the electrons have a bilayer charge distribution with finite tunneling. Whether this 1/2 FQHS is two-component (Abelian) or one-component (non-Abelian) has been debated since its experimental discovery over 30 years ago. Here, we report strong 1/2 FQHSs in ultrahigh-quality, wide, GaAs quantum wells, with transport energy gaps up to $\simeq$4K, among the largest gaps reported for any even-denominator FQHS. The 1/2 FQHS is flanked by numerous, Jain-sequence FQHSs at $\nu$=$p$/(2$p$$\pm$1) up to $\nu$=8/17 and 9/17. Remarkably, as we raise the density and strengthen the 1/2 FQHS, the 8/17 and 7/13 FQHSs suddenly become strong, much stronger than their neighboring high-order FQHSs. Insofar as FQHSs at $\nu$=8/17 and 7/13 are precisely the theoretically-predicted, simplest, daughter states of the one-component Pfaffian 1/2 FQHS, our data suggest a topological phase-transition of 8/17 and 7/13 FQHSs from the Jain-states to the daughter states of the Pfaffian, and that the parent 1/2 FQHS we observe is the Pfaffian state.

Signatures of Majorana Zero-Modes in an isolated one-dimensional superconductor. (arXiv:2309.00118v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Rohith Sajith, Kartiek Agarwal, Ivar Martin

We examine properties of the mean-field wave function of the one-dimensional Kitaev model supporting Majorana Zero Modes (MZMs) \emph{when restricted} to a fixed number of particles. Such wave functions can in fact be realized as exact ground states of interacting number-conserving Hamiltonians and amount to a more realistic description of the finite isolated superconductors. Akin to their mean-field parent, the fixed-number wave functions encode a single electron spectral function at zero energy that decays exponentially away from the edges, with a localization length that agrees with the mean-field value. Based purely on the structure of the number-projected ground states, we construct the fixed particle number generalization of the MZM operators. They can be used to compute the edge tunneling conductance; however, notably the value of the zero-bias conductance remains the same as in the mean-field case, quantized to $2e^2/h$. We also compute the topological entanglement entropy for the number-projected wave functions and find that it contains a `robust' $\log(2)$ component as well as a logarithmic correction to the mean field result, which depends on the precise partitioning used to compute it. The presence of the logarithmic term in the entanglement entropy indicates the absence of a spectral gap above the ground state; as one introduces fluctuations in the number of particles, the correction vanishes smoothly.

Pseudo-magnetic fields in square lattices. (arXiv:2309.00212v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Junsong Sun, Xingchuan Zhu, Tianyu Liu, Shiping Feng, Huaiming Guo

We have investigated the effects of strain on two-dimensional square lattices and examined the methods for inducing pseudo-magnetic fields. In both the columnar and staggered $\pi$-flux square lattices, we have found that strain only modulates Fermi velocities rather than inducing pseudo-magnetic fields. However, spatially non-uniform on-site potentials (anisotropic hoppings) can create pseudo-magnetic fields in columnar (staggered) $\pi$-flux square lattices. On the other hand, we demonstrate that strain does induce pseudo-magnetic fields in staggered zero-flux square lattices. By breaking a quarter of the bonds, we clarify that a staggered zero-flux square lattice is topologically equivalent to a honeycomb lattice and displays pseudo-vector potentials and pseudo-Landau levels at the Dirac points.

Topological chiral kagome lattice. (arXiv:2309.00217v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Jing-Yang You, Xiaoting Zhou, Tao Hou, Mohammad Yahyavi, Yuanjun Jin, Yi-Chun Hung, Bahadur Singh, Chun Zhang, Jia-Xin Yin, Arun Bansil, Guoqing Chang

Chirality, a fundamental structural property of crystals, can induce many unique topological quantum phenomena. In kagome lattice, unconventional transports have been reported under tantalizing chiral charge order. Here, we show how by deforming the kagome lattice to obtain a three-dimensional (3D) chiral kagome lattice in which the key band features of the non-chiral 2D kagome lattice - flat energy bands, van Hove singularities (VHSs), and degeneracies - remain robust in both the $k_z$ = 0 and $\pi$ planes in momentum space. Given the handedness of our kagome lattice, degenerate momentum points possess quantized Chern numbers, ushering in the realization of Weyl fermions. Our 3D chiral kagome lattice surprisingly exhibits 1D behavior on its surface, where topological surface Fermi arc states connecting Weyl fermions are dispersive in one momentum direction and flat in the other direction. These 1D Fermi arcs open up unique possibilities for generating unconventional non-local transport phenomena at the interfaces of domains with different handedness, and the associated enhanced conductance as the separation of the leads on the surface is increased. Employing first-principles calculations, we investigate in-depth the electronic and phononic structures of representative materials within the ten space groups that can support topological chiral kagome lattices. Our study opens a new research direction that integrates the advantages of structural chirality with those of a kagome lattice and thus provides a new materials platform for exploring unique aspects of correlated topological physics in chiral lattices.

Suppression of both superconductivity and structural transition in hole-doped MoTe$_2$ induced by Ta substitution. (arXiv:2309.00261v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Siu Tung Lam, K. Y. Yip, Swee K. Goh, Kwing To Lai

Type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe$_2$ exhibits a first-order structural transition at $T_s$ $\sim$250~K and superconducts at $T_c$ $\sim$0.1~K at ambient pressure. Both $T_s$ and $T_c$ can be manipulated by several tuning parameters, such as hydrostatic pressure and chemical substitution. It is often reported that suppressing $T_s$ enhances $T_c$, but our study shows a different behaviour when MoTe$_2$ is hole-doped by Ta. When $T_s$ is suppressed by Ta doping, $T_c$ is also suppressed. Our findings suggest that the suppression of $T_s$ does not necessarily enhance superconductivity in MoTe$_2$. By connecting with the findings of electron-doped MoTe$_2$, we argue that varying electron carrier concentration can effectively tune $T_c$. In addition, the Hall coefficient is enhanced around the doping region, where $T_s$ is completely suppressed, suggesting that the critical scattering around the structural transition may also play a role in suppressing $T_c$.

Evidence for chiral superconductivity in Kagome superconductor CsV3Sb5. (arXiv:2309.00264v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Tian Le, Zhiming Pan, Zhuokai Xu, Jinjin Liu, Jialu Wang, Zhefeng Lou, Zhiwei Wang, Yugui Yao, Congjun Wu, Xiao Lin

The interplay among frustrated lattice geometry, nontrivial band topology and correlations yields rich quantum states of matter in Kagome systems. A class of recent Kagome metals, AV3Sb5 (A= K, Rb, Cs), exhibit a cascade of symmetry-breaking transitions, involving 3Q chiral charge ordering, electronic nematicity, roton pair density wave and superconductivity. The interdependence among multiple competing orders suggests unconventional superconductivity, the nature of which is yet to be resolved. Here, we report the electronic evidence for chiral superconducting domains with boundary supercurrent, a smoking-gun of chiral superconductivity, in intrinsic CsV3Sb5 akes. Magnetic field-free superconducting diode effects are observed with its polarity modulated by thermal histories, unveiling a spontaneous time-reversal-symmetry breaking within dynamical order parameter domains in the superconducting phase. Strikingly, the critical current exhibits double-slit superconducting interference patterns, when subjected to external magnetic field. This is attributed to the periodic modulation of supercurrent owing along chiral domain boundaries constrained by fluxoid quantization. Our results provide the direct demonstration of a time-reversal symmetry breaking superconducting order in Kagome systems, opening a potential for exploring exotic physics, e.g. Majorana zero modes, in this intriguing topological Kagome system.

Superexchange coupling of donor qubits in silicon. (arXiv:2309.00276v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Mushita M. Munia, Serajum Monir, Edyta N. Osika, Michelle Y. Simmons, Rajib Rahman

Atomic engineering in a solid-state material has the potential to functionalize the host with novel phenomena. STM-based lithographic techniques have enabled the placement of individual phosphorus atoms at selective lattice sites of silicon with atomic precision. Here, we show that by placing four phosphorus donors spaced 10-15 nm apart from their neighbours in a linear chain, it is possible to realize coherent spin coupling between the end dopants of the chain, analogous to the superexchange interaction in magnetic materials. Since phosphorus atoms are a promising building block of a silicon quantum computer, this enables spin coupling between their bound electrons beyond nearest neighbours, allowing the qubits to be spaced out by 30-45 nm. The added flexibility in architecture brought about by this long-range coupling not only reduces gate densities but can also reduce correlated noise between qubits from local noise sources that are detrimental to error correction codes. We base our calculations on a full configuration interaction technique in the atomistic tight-binding basis, solving the 4-electron problem exactly, over a domain of a million silicon atoms. Our calculations show that superexchange can be tuned electrically through gate voltages where it is less sensitive to charge noise and donor placement errors.

Uniqueness of steady states of Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equations: a simple proof. (arXiv:2309.00335v1 [quant-ph])
Hironobu Yoshida

We present a simple proof of a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of non-equilibrium steady states of Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equations. We demonstrate the applications of the sufficient condition using examples of the transverse-field Ising model, the XYZ model, and the tight-binding model with dephasing.

Topological and nontopological degeneracies in generalized string-net models. (arXiv:2309.00343v1 [cond-mat.other])
Anna Ritz-Zwilling, Jean-Noël Fuchs, Steven H. Simon, Julien Vidal

Generalized string-net models have been recently proposed in order to enlarge the set of possible topological quantum phases emerging from the original string-net construction. In the present work, we do not consider vertex excitations and restrict to plaquette excitations, or fluxons, that satisfy important identities. We explain how to compute the energy-level degeneracies of the generalized string-net Hamiltonian associated to an arbitrary unitary fusion category. In contrast to the degeneracy of the ground state, which is purely topological, that of excited energy levels depends not only on the Drinfeld center of the category, but also on internal multiplicities obtained from the tube algebra defined from the category. For a noncommutative category, these internal multiplicities result in extra nontopological degeneracies. Our results are valid for any trivalent graph and any orientable surface. We illustrate our findings with nontrivial examples.

Coexistence of nematic superconductivity and spin density wave in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene. (arXiv:2309.00346v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
A.O. Sboychakov, A.V. Rozhkov, A.L. Rakhmanov

We argue that doped twisted bilayer graphene with magical twist angle can become superconducting. In our theoretical scenario the superconductivity coexists with the spin-density-wave-like ordering. Numerical mean field analysis demonstrates that the spin-density wave order, which is much stronger than the superconductivity, leaves parts of the Fermi surface ungapped. This Fermi surface serves as a host for the superconductivity. Since the magnetic texture at finite doping breaks the point group of the twisted bilayer graphene, the stabilized superconducting order parameter is nematic. We also explore the possibility of purely Coulomb-based mechanism of the superconductivity in the studied system. The screened Coulomb interaction is calculated within the random phase approximation. It is shown that near the half-filling the renormalized Coulomb repulsion indeed induces the superconducting state, with the order parameter possessing two nodes on the Fermi surface. We estimate the superconducting transition temperature, which turns out to be very low. The implications of our proposal are discussed.

Impact of Se concentration and distribution on topological transition in FeTe1-xSex crystals. (arXiv:2309.00469v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Jinying Wang, Gerhard Klimeck

A topological transition in high-temperature superconductors FeTe1-xSex, occurring at a critical range of Se concentration x, underlies their intrinsic topological superconductivity and emergence of Majorana states within vortices. Nonetheless, the influence of Se concentration and distribution on the electronic states in FeTe1-xSex remains unclear, particularly concerning their relationship with the presence or absence of Majorana states. In this study, we combine density functional theory (DFT) calculations, pz-dxz/yz-based and Wannier-based Hamiltonian analysis to systematically explore the electronic structures of diverse FeTe1-xSex compositions. Our investigation reveals a nonlinear variation of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) gap between pz and dxz/yz bands in response to x, with the maximum gap occurring at x = 0.5. The pz-pz and dx2-y2-pz interactions are found to be critical for pd band inversion. Furthermore, we ascertain that the distribution of Se significantly modulates the SOC gap, thereby influencing the presence or absence of Majorana states within local vortices.

Large-Separation Behavior of the Casimir-Polder Force from Real Graphene Sheet Deposited on a Dielectric Substrate. (arXiv:2309.00497v1 [quant-ph])
Galina L. Klimchitskaya, Vladimir M. Mostepanenko

The Casimir-Polder force between atoms or nanoparticles and graphene-coated dielectric substrates is investigated in the region of large separations. Graphene coating with any value of the energy gap and chemical potential is described in the framework of the Dirac model using the formalism of the polarization tensor. It is shown that the Casimir-Polder force from a graphene-coated substrate reaches the limit of large separations at approximately 5.6 $\mu$m distance between an atom or a nanoparticle and graphene coating independently of the values of the energy gap and chemical potential. According to our results, however, the classical limit, where the Casimir-Polder force no longer depends on the Planck constant and the speed of light, may be attained at much larger separations depending on the values of the energy gap and chemical potential. In addition, we have found a simple analytic expression for the Casimir-Polder force from a graphene-coated substrate at large separations and determined the region of its applicability. It is demonstrated that the asymptotic results for the large-separation Casimir-Polder force from a graphene-coated substrate are in better agreement with the results of numerical computations for the graphene sheets with larger chemical potential and smaller energy gap. Possible applications of the obtained results in nanotechnology and bioelectronics are discussed.

How heat propagates in `non-Fermi liquid' $^3$He. (arXiv:2309.00502v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])
Kamran Behnia, Kostya Trachenko

In Landau's Fermi liquid, transport is governed by scattering between quasi-particles. The normal liquid $^3$He conforms to this picture, but only when T$< 0.02$ T$_F$. Here, we observe that the deviation from the standard behavior is concomitant with the fermion-fermion scattering time falling below the Planckian time, $\frac{\hbar}{k_BT}$. The thermal diffusivity of this quantum liquid is bounded by a minimum set by fundamental physical constants and earlier observed in classical liquids. This implies that collective excitations of the liquid (a sound mode) are carrying heat. We argue that if heat is carried by 2k$_F$ hydrodynamic sound mode, both the amplitude and the hitherto unexplained $T^{1/2}$ temperature dependence of thermal conductivity find an explanation with no other adjustable parameter.

Statistics of remote regions of networks. (arXiv:2309.00537v1 [physics.soc-ph])
J. G. Oliveira, S. N. Dorogovtsev, J. F. F. Mendes

We delve into the statistical properties of regions within complex networks that are distant from vertices with high centralities, such as hubs or highly connected clusters. These remote regions play a pivotal role in shaping the asymptotic behaviours of various spreading processes and the features of associated spectra. We investigate the probability distribution $P_{\geq m}(s)$ of the number $s$ of vertices located at distance $m$ or beyond from a randomly chosen vertex in an undirected network. Earlier, this distribution and its large $m$ asymptotics $1/s^2$ were obtained theoretically for undirected uncorrelated networks [S. N. Dorogovtsev, J. F. F. Mendes, A. N. Samukhin, Nucl. Phys. B 653 (2003) 307]. Employing numerical simulations and analysing empirical data, we explore a wide range of real undirected networks and their models, including trees and loopy networks, and reveal that the inverse square law is valid even for networks with strong correlations. We observe this law in the networks demonstrating the small-world effect and containing vertices with degree $1$ (so-called leaves or dead ends). We find the specific classes of networks for which this law is not valid. Such networks include the finite-dimensional networks and the networks embedded in finite-dimensional spaces. We notice that long chains of nodes in networks reduce the range of $m$ for which the inverse square law can be spotted. Interestingly, we detect such long chains in the remote regions of the undirected projection of a large Web domain.

Fast quantum gates based on Landau-Zener-St\"uckelberg-Majorana transitions. (arXiv:2309.00601v1 [quant-ph])
Joan J. Caceres, Daniel Dominguez, Maria Jose Sanchez

Fast quantum gates are of paramount importance for enabling efficient and error-resilient quantum computations. In the present work we analyze Landau-Zener-St\"uckelberg-Majorana (LSZM) strong driving protocols, tailored to implement fast gates with particular emphasis on small gap qubits. We derive analytical equations to determine the specific set of driving parameters for the implementation of single qubit and two qubit gates employing single period sinusoidal pulses. Our approach circumvents the need to scan experimentally a wide range of parameters and instead it allows to focus in fine-tuning the device near the analytically predicted values. We analyze the dependence of relaxation and decoherence on the amplitude and frequency of the pulses, obtaining the optimal regime of driving parameters to mitigate the effects of the environment. Our results focus on the study of the single qubit $X_{\frac{\pi}{2}}$, $Y_{\frac{\pi}{2}}$ and identity gates. Also, we propose the $\sqrt{\rm{bSWAP}}$ as the simplest two-qubit gate attainable through a robust LZSM driving protocol.

Non-Einsteinian Viscosity Reduction in Boron Nitride Nanotube Nanofluids. (arXiv:2309.00606v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
André Guerra, Adam McElligott, Chong Yang Du, Milan Marić, Alejandro D. Rey, Phillip Servio

(1) Introduction: Nanoparticles have multiple applications, including drug delivery systems, biosensing, and carbon capture. Non-Einstein-like viscosity reduction has been reported in nanoparticle-polymer blends at low nanoparticle concentrations. More recently, a similar non-Einsteinian viscosity reduction effect has been observed in aqueous ultra-low concentration carbon-based nanofluids. (2) Methods: We use a boron nitride nanotube functionalized with hydrophilic groups in rheological experiments to investigate the viscosity reduction in ultra-low concentration nanofluids (0.1-10 ppm). We measure the dynamic viscosity in an air atmosphere and methane (0-5 MPag) at low temperatures (0-10 C). (3) Results: A negligible effect on the temperature dependence of viscosity was found. Ultra-low concentrations of BNNT reduced the viscosity of the nanofluid by up to 29% at 10 ppm in the presence of methane. The results presented here were compared to similar studies on O-GNF and O-MWCNT nanofluids, which also reported significant viscosity reductions. (4) Conclusions: This work identified a non-Einsteinian viscosity reduction in BNNT nanofluids, which was exacerbated by methane dissolved in the nanofluid.

Weyl Fermions and Broken Symmetry Phases of Laterally Confined $^3$He Films. (arXiv:1805.00936v3 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)
Hao Wu, J. A. Sauls

Broken symmetries in topological condensed matter systems have implications for the spectrum of Fermionic excitations confined on surfaces or topological defects. The Fermionic spectrum of confined (quasi-2D) $^3$He-A consists of branches of chiral edge states. The negative energy states are related to the ground-state angular momentum, $L_z = (N/2) \hbar$, for $N/2$ Cooper pairs. The power law suppression of the angular momentum, $L_z(T) \simeq (N/2)\,\hbar\,[1 - \frac{2}{3}(\pi T/\Delta)^2 ]$ for $0 \le T \ll T_c$, in the fully gapped 2D chiral A-phase reflects the thermal excitation of the chiral edge Fermions. We discuss the effects of wave function overlap, and hybridization between edge states confined near opposing edge boundaries on the edge currents, ground-state angular momentum and ground-state order parameter of superfluid $^3$He thin films. Under strong lateral confinement, the chiral A phase undergoes a sequence of phase transitions, first to a pair density wave (PDW) phase with broken translational symmetry at $D_{c2} \sim 16 \xi_0$. The PDW phase is described by a periodic array of chiral domains with alternating chirality, separated by domain walls. The period of PDW phase diverges as the confinement length $D\rightarrow D_{c_2}$. The PDW phase breaks time-reversal symmetry, translation invariance, but is invariant under the combination of time-reversal and translation by a one-half period of the PDW. The mass current distribution of the PDW phase reflects this combined symmetry, and originates from the spectra of edge Fermions and the chiral branches bound to the domain walls. Under sufficiently strong confinement a second-order transition occurs to the non-chiral ``polar phase'' at $D_{c1} \sim 9\xi_0$, in which a single p-wave orbital state of Cooper pairs is aligned along the channel.

Super-operator structures and no-go theorems for dissipative quantum phase transitions. (arXiv:2012.05505v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)
Thomas Barthel, Yikang Zhang

In the thermodynamic limit, the steady states of open quantum many-body systems can undergo nonequilibrium phase transitions due to a competition between coherent and driven-dissipative dynamics. Here, we consider Markovian systems and elucidate structures of the Liouville super-operator that generates the time evolution. In many cases of interest, an operator-basis transformation can bring the Liouvillian into a block-triangular form, making it possible to assess its spectrum. The spectral gap sets the asymptotic decay rate. The super-operator structure can be used to bound gaps from below, showing that, in a large class of systems, dissipative phase transitions are actually impossible and that the convergence to steady states follows an exponential temporal decay. Furthermore, when the blocks on the diagonal are Hermitian, the Liouvillian spectra obey Weyl ordering relations. The results apply, for example, to Davies generators and quadratic systems, and are also demonstrated for various spin models.

RKKY to Kondo crossover in Helical Edge of a Topological Insulator. (arXiv:2208.02275v3 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Pol Alonso-Cuevillas Ferrer, Oleg M. Yevtushenko, Andreas Weichselbaum

Two spatially separated magnetic impurities coupled to itinerant electrons give rise to a dynamically generated exchange (RKKY) inter-impurity interaction that competes with the individual Kondo screening of the impurities. It has been recently shown by Yevtushenko and Yudson (2018), that the RKKY interaction and the RKKY vs. Kondo competition become nontrivial on helical edges of two-dimensional topological insulators where there is lock-in relation between the electron spin and its direction of motion. Kondo screening always takes over and dominates at large inter-impurity distances and it can also dominate all the way to short distances if the Kondo coupling is sufficiently large and anisotropic. In the present paper, we study the Kondo-RKKY competition in detail on a qualitative and quantitative level. For this we employ the numerically exact numerical renormalization group (NRG) for a broad parameter scan of two Kondo coupled impurities vs. magnetic anisotropy, impurity distance and temperature, and comment on the role of finite bandwidth. We give a pedagogical introduction on the the setup of the two-impurity setting within the NRG in the helical context. Overall we establish a plain crossover from RKKY to Kondo with increasing impurity distance which permits an intuitive physical picture by simply comparing length scales set by the Kondo screening cloud, the thermal length scale vs. the impurity distance.

Magnetic Flux Response of Non-Hermitian Topological Phases. (arXiv:2208.11712v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
M. Michael Denner, Frank Schindler

We derive the response of non-Hermitian topological phases with intrinsic point gap topology to localized magnetic flux insertions. In two spatial dimensions, we identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for a flux skin effect that localizes an extensive number of in-gap modes at a flux core. In three dimensions, we furthermore establish the existence of: a flux spectral jump, where flux tube insertion fills up the entire point gap only at a single parallel crystal momentum; a higher-order flux skin effect, which occurs at the ends of flux tubes in presence of pseudo-inversion symmetry; and a flux Majorana mode that represents a spectrally isolated mid-gap state in the complex energy plane. We uniquely associate each non-Hermitian symmetry class with intrinsic point gap topology with one of these cases or a trivial flux response, and discuss possible experimental realizations.

Proximity-induced equilibrium supercurrent and perfect superconducting diode effect due to band asymmetry. (arXiv:2210.09346v2 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)
Pavan Hosur, Daniel Palacios

We theoretically investigate the consequences of proximity-induced conventional superconductivity in metals that break time-reversal and inversion symmetries through their energy dispersion. We discover behaviors impossible in an isolated superconductor such as an equilibrium supercurrent that apparently violates a no-go theorem and, at suitable topological defects, non-conservation of electric charge reminiscent of the chiral anomaly. The equilibrium supercurrent is expected to be trainable by a helical electromagnetic field in the normal state. Remarkably, if the band asymmetry exceeds the critical current of the parent superconductor in appropriate units, we predict a perfect superconducting diode effect with diode coefficient unity. We propose toroidal metals such as UNi$_{4}$B and metals with directional scalar spin chiral order as potential platforms.

Topological Josephson Junctions in the Integer Quantum Hall Regime. (arXiv:2211.02575v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Gianmichele Blasi, Géraldine Haack, Vittorio Giovannetti, Fabio Taddei, Alessandro Braggio

Robust and tunable topological Josephson junctions (TJJs) are highly desirable platforms for investigating the anomalous Josephson effect and topological quantum computation applications. Experimental demonstrations have been done in hybrid superconducting-two dimensional topological insulator (2DTI) platforms, sensitive to magnetic disorder and interactions with phonons and other electrons. In this work, we propose a robust and electrostatically tunable TJJ by combining the physics of the integer quantum Hall (IQH) regime and of superconductors. We provide analytical insights about the corresponding Andreev bound state spectrum, the Josephson current and the anomalous current. We demonstrate the existence of protected zero-energy crossings, that can be controlled through electrostatic external gates. This electrostatic tunability has a direct advantage to compensate for non-ideal interfaces and undesirable reflections that may occur in any realistic samples. TJJs in the IQH regime could be realized in graphene and other 2D materials. They are of particular relevance towards scalable and robust Andreev-qubit platforms, and also for efficient phase batteries.

Dynamic correlations in the conserved Manna sandpile. (arXiv:2211.14070v3 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)
Anirban Mukherjee, Punyabrata Pradhan

We study dynamic correlations for current and mass, as well as the associated power spectra, in the one-dimensional conserved Manna sandpile. We show that, in the thermodynamic limit, the variance of cumulative bond current up to time $T$ grows subdiffusively as $T^{1/2-\mu}$ with the exponent $\mu \ge 0$ depending on the density regimes considered and, likewise, the power spectra of current and mass at low frequency $f$ varies as $f^{1/2+\mu}$ and $f^{-3/2+\mu}$, respectively; our theory predicts that, far from criticality, $\mu = 0$ and, near criticality, $\mu = (\beta+1)/2 \nu_{\perp} z > 0$ with $\beta$, $\nu_{\perp}$ and $z$ being the order-parameter, correlation-length and dynamic exponents, respectively. The anomalous suppression of fluctuations near criticality signifies a "dynamic hyperuniformity", characterized by a set of fluctuation relations, in which current, mass and tagged-particle displacement fluctuations are shown to have a precise quantitative relationship with the density-dependent activity (or, it's derivative). In particular, the relation, ${\mathcal{D}}_s(\bar{\rho}) = a(\bar{\rho}) / \bar{\rho}$, between the self-diffusion coefficient ${\mathcal{D}}_s(\bar{\rho})$, activity $a(\bar{\rho})$ and density $\bar{\rho}$ explains a previous simulation observation [Eur. Phys. J. B \textbf{72}, 441 (2009)] that, near criticality, the self-diffusion coefficient in the Manna sandpile has the same scaling behavior as the activity.

General scatterings and electronic states in the quantum-wire network of moir\'e systems. (arXiv:2303.00759v5 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Chen-Hsuan Hsu, Daniel Loss, Jelena Klinovaja

We investigate electronic states in a two-dimensional network consisting of interacting quantum wires, a model adopted for twisted bilayer systems. We construct general operators which describe various scattering processes in the system. In a twisted bilayer structure, the moir\'e periodicity allows for generalized umklapp scatterings, leading to a class of correlated states at certain fractional fillings. We identify scattering processes which can lead to an insulating gapped bulk with gapless chiral edge modes at fractional fillings, resembling the quantum anomalous Hall effect recently observed in twisted bilayer graphene. Finally, we demonstrate that the description can be useful in predicting spectroscopic and transport features to detect and characterize the chiral edge modes in the moir\'e-induced correlated states.

Photocurrent induced by a bicircular light drive in centrosymmetric systems. (arXiv:2303.01796v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Yuya Ikeda, Sota Kitamura, Takahiro Morimoto

A bicircular light (BCL) consists of left and right circularly polarized lights with different frequencies, and draws a rose-like pattern with a rotational symmetry determined by the ratio of the two frequencies. Here we show that an application of a BCL to centrosymmetric systems allows a photocurrent generation through introduction of an effective polarity to the system. We derive formulas for the BCL-induced photocurrent from a standard perturbation theory, which is then applied to a simple 1D model and 3D Dirac/Weyl semimetals. A nonperturbative effect with strong light intensity is also discussed with the Floquet technique.

Twisted bilayer graphene reveals its flat bands under spin pumping. (arXiv:2303.12380v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Sonia Haddad, Takeo Kato, Jihang Zhu, Lassaad Mandhour

The salient property of the electronic band structure of twisted bilayer graphene (TBG), at the so-called magic angle (MA), is the emergence of flat bands around the charge neutrality point. These bands are associated with the observed superconducting phases and the correlated insulating states. Scanning tunneling microscopy combined with angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy are usually used to visualize the flatness of the band structure of TBG at the MA. Here, we theoretically argue that spin pumping (SP) provides a direct probe of the flat bands of TBG and an accurate determination of the MA. We consider a junction separating a ferromagnetic insulator and a heterostructure of TBG adjacent to a monolayer of a transition metal dichalcogenide. We show that the Gilbert damping of the ferromagnetic resonance experiment, through this junction, depends on the twist angle of TBG, and exhibits a sharp drop at the MA. We discuss the experimental realization of our results which open the way to a twist switchable spintronics in twisted van der Waals heterostructures.

Machine-Learning Recognition of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction from Magnetometry. (arXiv:2304.05905v2 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
Bradley J. Fugetta, Zhijie Chen, Dhritiman Bhattacharya, Kun Yue, Kai Liu, Amy Y. Liu, Gen Yin

The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), which is the antisymmetric part of the exchange interaction between neighboring local spins, winds the spin manifold and can stabilize non-trivial topological spin textures. Since topology is a robust information carrier, characterization techniques that can extract the DMI magnitude are important for the discovery and optimization of spintronic materials. Existing experimental techniques for quantitative determination of DMI, such as high-resolution magnetic imaging of spin textures and measurement of magnon or transport properties, are time consuming and require specialized instrumentation. Here we show that a convolutional neural network can extract the DMI magnitude from minor hysteresis loops, or magnetic "fingerprints" of a material. These hysteresis loops are readily available by conventional magnetometry measurements. This provides a convenient tool to investigate topological spin textures for next-generation information processing.

Infernal and Exceptional Edge Modes: Non-Hermitian Topology Beyond the Skin Effect. (arXiv:2304.13743v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
M. Michael Denner, Titus Neupert, Frank Schindler

The classification of point gap topology in all local non-Hermitian symmetry classes has been recently established. However, many entries in the resulting periodic table have only been discussed in a formal setting and still lack a physical interpretation in terms of their bulk-boundary correspondence. Here, we derive the edge signatures of all two-dimensional phases with intrinsic point gap topology. While in one dimension point gap topology invariably leads to the non-Hermitian skin effect, non-Hermitian boundary physics is significantly richer in two dimensions. We find two broad classes of non-Hermitian edge states: (1) Infernal points, where a skin effect occurs only at a single edge momentum, while all other edge momenta are devoid of edge states. Under semi-infinite boundary conditions, the point gap thereby closes completely, but only at a single edge momentum. (2) Non-Hermitian exceptional point dispersions, where edge states persist at all edge momenta and furnish an anomalous number of symmetry-protected exceptional points. Surprisingly, the latter class of systems allows for a finite, non-extensive number of edge states with a well defined dispersion along all generic edge terminations. Instead, the point gap only closes along the real and imaginary eigenvalue axes, realizing a novel form of non-Hermitian spectral flow.

Dynamics of polaron formation in 1D Bose gases in the strong-coupling regime. (arXiv:2304.14490v2 [cond-mat.quant-gas] UPDATED)
Martin Will, Michael Fleischhauer

We discuss the dynamics of the formation of a Bose polaron when an impurity is injected into a weakly interacting one-dimensional Bose condensate. While for small impurity-boson couplings this process can be described within the Froehlich model as generation, emission and binding of Bogoliubov phonons, this is no longer adequate if the coupling becomes strong. To treat this regime we consider a mean-field approach beyond the Froehlich model which accounts for the backaction to the condensate, complemented with Truncated Wigner simulations to include quantum fluctuation. For the stationary polaron we find an energy-momentum relation that displays a smooth crossover from a convex to a concave dependence associated with a non-monotonous relation between impurity velocity and polaron momentum. For larger momenta the energy is a periodic function including regions of negative impurity velocity. Studying the polaron formation after turning on the impurity-boson coupling quasi adiabatically and in a sudden quench, we find a very rich scenario of dynamical regimes. Due to the build-up of an effective mass, the impurity is slowed down even if its initial velocity is below the Landau critical value. For larger initial velocities we find deceleration and even backscattering caused by emission of density waves or grey solitons and subsequent formation of stationary polaron states in different momentum sectors. In order to analyze the effect of quantum fluctuations we consider a trapped condensate to avoid 1D infrared divergencies. Using Truncated Wigner simulations in this case we show under what conditions the influence of quantum fluctuations is small.

Grand-canonical Thermodynamic Formalism via IFS: volume, temperature, gas pressure and grand-canonical topological pressure. (arXiv:2305.01590v2 [math.DS] UPDATED)
A. O. Lopes, E. R. Oliveira, W. de S. Pedra, V. Vargas

We consider here a dynamic model for a gas in which a variable number of particles $N \in \mathbb{N}_0 := \mathbb{N} \cup \{0\}$ can be located at a site. This point of view leads us to the grand-canonical framework and the need for a chemical potential. The dynamics is played by the shift acting on the set of sequences $\Omega := \mathcal{A}^\mathbb{N}$, where the alphabet is $\mathcal{A} := \mathbb{N} \cup \{0\}$. Introducing new variables like the number of particles $N$ and the chemical potential $\mu$, we adapt the concept of grand-canonical partition sum of thermodynamics of gases to a symbolic dynamical setting considering a Lipschitz family of potentials $% (A_N)_{N \in \mathbb{N}_0}$, $A_N:\Omega \to \mathbb{R}$. Our main results will be obtained from adapting well-known %properties the results will be obtained through the use of known properties of the Thermodynamic Formalism for IFS with weights to our setting. In this direction, we introduce the grand-canonical transfer (Ruelle) operator: $\mathcal{L}_{\beta, \mu}(f)=g$, when, $\beta>0,\mu<0,$ and $$g(x)= \mathcal{L}_{\beta, \mu}(f) (x) =\sum_{N \in \mathbb{N}_0} e^{\beta \, \mu\, N }\, \sum_{j \in \mathcal{A}} e^{- \,\beta\, A_N(jx)} f(jx). $$ We show the existence of the main eigenvalue, an associated eigenfunction, and an eigenprobability for $\mathcal{L}_{\beta, \mu}$. Considering the concept of entropy for holonomic probabilities on $\mathbb{N}_0\times \Omega$% , we relate these items with the variational problem of maximizing grand-canonical pressure. In another direction, in the appendix, we briefly digress on a possible interpretation of the concept of topological pressure as related to the gas pressure of gas thermodynamics.

2-Drinfel'd double symmetry of the 4d Kitaev model. (arXiv:2305.04729v3 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Hank Chen

Following the general theory of categorified quantum groups developed by the author previously (arxiv:2304.07398), we construct the 2-Drinfel'd double associated to a finite group $N=G_0$. For $N=\mathbb{Z}_2$, we explicitly compute the braided 2-categories of 2-representations of certain version of this 2-Drinfel'd double, and prove that they characterize precisely the 4d toric code and its spin-$\mathbb{Z}_2$ variant. This result relates the two descriptions (categorical vs. field theoretical) of 4d gapped topological phases in existing literature and, perhaps more strikingly, displays the first ever instances of higher Tannakian duality for braided 2-categories. In particular, we show that particular twists of the underlying 2-Drinfel'd double is responsible for much of the higher-structural properties that arise in 4d topological orders.

Hilbert space structure of the low energy sector of U(N) quantum Hall ferromagnets and their classical limit. (arXiv:1904.06932v4 [cond-mat.mes-hall] CROSS LISTED)
M. Calixto, A. Mayorgas, J. Guerrero

Using the Lieb-Mattis ordering theorem of electronic energy levels, we identify the Hilbert space of the low energy sector of U($N$) quantum Hall/Heisenberg ferromagnets at filling factor $M$ for $L$ Landau/lattice sites with the carrier space of irreducible representations of U($N$) described by rectangular Young tableaux of $M$ rows and $L$ columns, and associated with Grassmannian phase spaces U($N$)/U($M$)$\times$U($N-M$). We embed this $N$-component fermion mixture in Fock space through a Schwinger-Jordan (boson and fermion) representation of U($N$)-spin operators. We provide different realizations of basis vectors using Young diagrams, Gelfand-Tsetlin patterns and Fock states (for an electron/flux occupation number in the fermionic/bosonic representation). U($N$)-spin operator matrix elements in the Gelfand-Tsetlin basis are explicitly given. Coherent state excitations above the ground state are computed and labeled by complex $(N-M)\times M$ matrix points $Z$ on the Grassmannian phase space. They adopt the form of a U($N$) displaced/rotated highest-weight vector, or a multinomial Bose-Einstein condensate in the flux occupation number representation. Replacing U($N$)-spin operators by their expectation values in a Grassmannian coherent state allows for a semi-classical treatment of the low energy (long wavelength) U($N$)-spin-wave coherent excitations (skyrmions) of U($N$) quantum Hall ferromagnets in terms of Grasmannian nonlinear sigma models.

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Visualizing near-coexistence of massless Dirac electrons and ultra-massive saddle point electrons, by Abhay Kumar Nayak, Jonathan Reiner, Hengxin Tan, Huixia Fu, Henry Ling, Chandra Shekhar, Claudia Felser, Tami Pereg-Barnea, Binghai Yan, Haim Beidenkopf, Nurit Avraham
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Submitted on 2023-09-03, refereeing deadline 2023-09-03.