Found 27 papers in cond-mat
Date of feed: Mon, 30 Oct 2023 00:30:00 GMT

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Measuring Topological Field Theories: Lattice Models and Field-Theoretic Description. (arXiv:2310.17740v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Yabo Li, Mikhail Litvinov, Tzu-Chieh Wei

Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest in performing measurements within topological phases of matter, e.g., symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases and topological orders. Notably, measurements of certain SPT states have been known to be related to Kramers-Wannier duality and Jordan-Wigner transformations, giving rise to long-range entangled states and invertible phases, such as the Kitaev chain. Moreover, measurements of topologically ordered states correspond to charge condensations. In this work, we present a field-theoretic framework for describing measurements within topological field theories. We employ various lattice models as examples to illustrate the outcomes of measuring local symmetry operators within topological phases, demonstrating their agreement with the predictions from field-theoretic descriptions. We demonstrate that these measurements can lead to SPT, spontaneous symmetry-breaking, and topologically ordered phases. Specifically, when there is emergent symmetry after measurement, the remaining symmetry and emergent symmetry will have a mixed anomaly, which leads to long-ranged entanglement.


Autonomous convergence of STM control parameters using Bayesian Optimization. (arXiv:2310.17765v1 [physics.app-ph])
Ganesh Narasimha, Saban Hus, Arpan Biswas, Rama Vasudevan, Maxim Ziatdinov

Scanning Tunneling microscopy (STM) is a widely used tool for atomic imaging of novel materials and its surface energetics. However, the optimization of the imaging conditions is a tedious process due to the extremely sensitive tip-surface interaction, and thus limits the throughput efficiency. Here we deploy a machine learning (ML) based framework to achieve optimal-atomically resolved imaging conditions in real time. The experimental workflow leverages Bayesian optimization (BO) method to rapidly improve the image quality, defined by the peak intensity in the Fourier space. The outcome of the BO prediction is incorporated into the microscope controls, i.e., the current setpoint and the tip bias, to dynamically improve the STM scan conditions. We present strategies to either selectively explore or exploit across the parameter space. As a result, suitable policies are developed for autonomous convergence of the control-parameters. The ML-based framework serves as a general workflow methodology across a wide range of materials.


Ab-initio study of the energy competition between \Gamma and K valleys in bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides. (arXiv:2310.17824v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Sam Olin, Erekle Jmukhadze, Allan H. MacDonald, Wei-Cheng Lee

Moir\'e engineering in two-dimensional van der Waals bilayer crystals has emerged as a flexible platform for controlling strongly correlated electron systems. The competition between valleys for the band extremum energy position in the parent layers is crucial in deciding the qualitative nature of the moir\'e Hamiltonian since it controls the physics of the moir\'e minibands. Here we use density functional theory to examine the competition between K and $\Gamma$ for the valence band maximum in homo- and hetero-bilayers formed from the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), MX\{_2} where M=Mo,W and X=S,Se,Te. We shed light on how the competition is influenced by interlayer separation, which can be modified by applying pressure, by external gate-defined electric fields, and by transition metal atom d-orbital correlations. Our findings are related to several recent experiments, and contribute to the development of design rules for moir\'{e} materials.


Realizing attractive interacting topological surface fermions: A resonating TI- thin film hybrid platform. (arXiv:2310.17847v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Saran Vijayan, Fei Zhou

In this article, we propose a practical way to realize topological surface Dirac fermions with tunable attractive interaction between them. The approach involves coating the surface of a topological insulator with a thin film metal and utilizing the strong-electron phonon coupling in the metal to induce interaction between the surface fermions. We found that for a given TI and thin film, the attractive interaction between the surface fermions can be maximally enhanced when the Dirac point of the TI surface resonates with one of the quasi-2D quantum-well bands of the thin film. This effect can be considered to be an example of 'quantum-well resonance'. We also demonstrate that the superconductivity of the resonating surface fermions can be further enhanced by choosing a strongly interacting thin film metal or by tuning the spin-orbit coupling of the TI. This TI-thin film hybrid configuration holds promise for applications in Majorana-based quantum computations and for the study of quantum critical physics of strongly attractively interacting surface topological matter with emergent supersymmetry.


Twist- and gate-tunable proximity spin-orbit coupling, spin relaxation anisotropy, and charge-to-spin conversion in heterostructures of graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides. (arXiv:2310.17907v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Klaus Zollner, Simão M. João, Branislav K. Nikolić, Jaroslav Fabian

We present a DFT-based investigation of the twist-angle dependent proximity spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in graphene/TMDC structures. We find that for Mo-based TMDCs the proximity valley-Zeeman SOC exhibits a maximum at around 15--20{\deg}, and vanishes at 30{\deg}, while for W-based TMDCs we find an almost linear decrease of proximity valley-Zeeman SOC when twisting from 0{\deg} to 30{\deg}. The induced Rashba SOC is rather insensitive to twisting, while acquiring a nonzero Rashba phase angle, $\varphi \in [-20;40]${\deg}, for twist angles different from 0{\deg} and 30{\deg}. This finding contradicts earlier tight-binding predictions that the Rashba angle can be 90{\deg} in the studied systems. In addition, we study the influence of several tunability knobs on the proximity SOC for selected twist angles. By applying a transverse electric field in the limits of $\pm 2$ V/nm, mainly the Rashba SOC can be tuned by about 50\%. The interlayer distance provides a giant tunability, since the proximity SOC can be increased by a factor of 2--3, when reducing the distance by about 10\%. Encapsulating graphene between two TMDCs, both twist angles are important to control the interference of the individual proximity SOCs, allowing to precisely tailor the valley-Zeeman SOC in graphene, while the Rashba SOC becomes suppressed. Finally, based on our effective Hamiltonians with fitted parameters, we calculate experimentally measurable quantities such as spin lifetime anisotropy and charge-to-spin conversion efficiencies. The spin lifetime anisotropy can become giant, up to $10^4$, in encapsulated structures. The charge-to-spin conversion, which is due to spin-Hall and Rashba-Edelstein effects, can lead to twist-tunable non-equilibrium spin-density polarizations that are perpendicular and parallel to the applied charge current.


Alternative fast quantum logic gates using nonadiabatic Landau-Zener-St\"{u}ckelberg-Majorana transitions. (arXiv:2310.17932v1 [quant-ph])
A. I. Ryzhov, O. V. Ivakhnenko, S. N. Shevchenko, M. F. Gonzalez-Zalba, Franco Nori

A conventional realization of quantum logic gates and control is based on resonant Rabi oscillations of the occupation probability of the system. This approach has certain limitations and complications, like counter-rotating terms. We study an alternative paradigm for implementing quantum logic gates based on Landau-Zener-St\"{u}ckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) interferometry with non-resonant driving and the alternation of adiabatic evolution and non-adiabatic transitions. Compared to Rabi oscillations, the main differences are a non-resonant driving frequency and a small number of periods in the external driving. We explore the dynamics of a multilevel quantum system under LZSM drives and optimize the parameters for increasing single- and two-qubit gates speed. We define the parameters of the external driving required for implementing some specific gates using the adiabatic-impulse model. The LZSM approach can be applied to a large variety of multi-level quantum systems and external driving, providing a method for implementing quantum logic gates on them.


Resilient Intraparticle Entanglement and its Manifestation in Spin Dynamics of Disordered Dirac Matter. (arXiv:2310.17950v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Jorge Martinez Romeral, Aron W. Cummings, Stephan Roche

Topological quantum matter exhibits novel transport phenomena driven by entanglement between internal degrees of freedom, as for instance generated by spin-orbit coupling effects. Here we report on a direct connection between the mechanism driving spin relaxation and the intertwined dynamics between spin and sublattice degrees of freedom in disordered graphene. Beyond having a direct observable consequence, such intraparticle entanglement is shown to be resilient to disorder, pointing towards a novel resource for quantum information processing.


Observation of Chern insulator in crystalline ABCA-tetralayer graphene with spin-orbit coupling. (arXiv:2310.17971v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Yating Sha, Jian Zheng, Kai Liu, Hong Du, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Jinfeng Jia, Zhiwen Shi, Ruidan Zhong, Guorui Chen

Degeneracies in multilayer graphene, including spin, valley, and layer degrees of freedom, are susceptible to Coulomb interactions and can result into rich broken-symmetry states. In this work, we report a ferromagnetic state in charge neutral ABCA-tetralayer graphene driven by proximity-induced spin-orbit coupling from adjacent WSe2. The ferromagnetic state is further identified as a Chern insulator with Chern number of 4, and its Hall resistance reaches 78% and 100% quantization of h/4e2 at zero and 0.4 tesla, respectively. Three broken-symmetry insulating states, layer-antiferromagnet, Chern insulator and layer-polarized insulator and their transitions can be continuously tuned by the vertical displacement field. Remarkably, the magnetic order of the Chern insulator can be switched by three knobs, including magnetic field, electrical doping, and vertical displacement field.


Nonadiabatic nonlinear non-Hermitian quantized pumping. (arXiv:2310.17987v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Motohiko Ezawa, Natsuko Ishida, Yasutomo Ota, Satoshi Iwamoto

We analyze a quantized pumping in a nonlinear non-Hermitian photonic system with nonadiabatic driving. The photonic system is made of a waveguide array, where the distances between adjacent waveguides are modulated. It is described by the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model together with a saturated nonlinear gain term and a linear loss term. A topological interface state between the topological and trivial phases is stabilized by the combination of a saturated nonlinear gain term and a linear loss term. We study the pumping of the topological interface state. We define the transfer-speed ratio $\omega /\Omega $ by the ratio of the pumping speed $% \omega $ of the center of mass of the wave packet to the driving speed $ \Omega $ of the topological interface. It is quantized as $\omega /\Omega =1$ in the adiabatic limit. It remains to be quantized for slow driving even in the nonadiabatic regime, which is a nonadiabatic quantized pump. On the other hand, there is almost no pump for fast driving. We find a transition in pumping as a function of the driving speed.


Theory of $d + id$ Second-Order Topological Superconductors. (arXiv:2310.17992v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Zi-Ming Wang, Meng Zeng, Chen Lu, Da-Shuai Ma, Rui-Xing Zhang, Lun-Hui Hu, Dong-Hui Xu

Topological superconductors are a class of unconventional superconducting materials featuring sub-gap zero-energy Majorana bound modes that hold promise as a building block for topological quantum computing. In this work, we study the realization of second-order topology that defines anomalous gapless boundary modes in a two-orbital superconductor with spin-orbital couplings. We reveal a time-reversal symmetry-breaking second-order topological superconducting phase with $d+id$-wave orbital-dependent paring without the need for the external magnetic field. Remarkably, this orbital-active $d$-wave paring gives rise to anomalous zero-energy Majorana corner modes, which is in contrast to conventional chiral $d$-wave pairing, accommodating one-dimensional Majorana edge modes. Our work not only reveals a unique mechanism of time-reversal symmetry breaking second-order topological superconductors but also bridges the gap between second-order topology and orbital-dependent pairings.


Gate-tunable topological superconductivity in a supramolecular electron spin lattice. (arXiv:2310.18134v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Jung-Ching Liu, Chao Li, Richard Hess, Hongyan Chen, Carl Drechsel, Ping Zhou, Robert Häner, Ulrich Aschauer, Thilo Glatzel, Silvio Decurtins, Daniel Loss, Jelena Klinovaja, Shi-Xia Liu, Wulf Wulfhekel, Ernst Meyer, Rémy Pawlak

Topological superconductivity emerges in chains or arrays of magnetic atoms coupled to a superconductor. However, the external controllability of such systems with gate voltages is detrimental for their future implementation in a topological quantum computer. Here we showcase the supramolecular assembly of radical molecules on Pb(111), whose discharge is controlled by the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Charged molecules carry a spin-1/2 state, as confirmed by observing Yu-Shiba-Rusinov in-gap states by tunneling spectroscopy at millikelvin temperature. Low energy modes are localized at island boundaries with a long decay towards the interior, whose spectral signature is consistent with Majorana zero modes protected by mirror symmetry. Our results open up a vast playground for the synthesis of gate-tunable organic topological superconductors.


Tailoring Photocurrent in Weyl Semimetals via Intense Laser Irradiation. (arXiv:2310.18145v1 [physics.optics])
Amar Bharti, Gopal Dixit

Generating and tailoring photocurrent in topological materials has immense importance in fundamental studies and the technological front. Present work introduces a universal method to generate ultrafast photocurrent in {\it both} inversion-symmetric and inversion-broken Weyl semimetals with degenerate Weyl nodes at the Fermi level. Our approach harnesses the asymmetric electronic population in the conduction band induced by an intense {\it single-color} circularly polarized laser pulse. It has been found that the induced photocurrent can be tailored by manipulating helicity and ellipticity of the employed laser. Moreover, our approach generates photocurrent in realistic situations when the Weyl nodes are positioned at different energies and have finite tilt along a certain direction. Present work adds a new dimension on practical applications of Weyl semimetals for optoelectronics and photonics-based quantum technologies.


Molecular beam epitaxy of superconducting FeSe$_{x}$Te$_{1-x}$ thin films interfaced with magnetic topological insulators. (arXiv:2310.18147v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Yuki Sato, Soma Nagahama, Ilya Belopolski, Ryutaro Yoshimi, Minoru Kawamura, Atsushi Tsukazaki, Naoya Kanazawa, Kei S. Takahashi, Masashi Kawasaki, Yoshinori Tokura

Engineering heterostructures with various types of quantum materials can provide an intriguing playground for studying exotic physics induced by proximity effect. Here, we report the successful synthesis of iron-based superconductor FeSe$_{x}$Te$_{1-x}$ (FST) thin films in the entire composition of $0 \leq x \leq 1$ and its heterostructure with a magnetic topological insulator by using molecular beam epitaxy. Superconductivity is observed in the FST films with an optimal superconducting transition temperature $T_c$ $\sim$ 12 K at around x = 0.1. We found that superconductivity survives in the very Te-rich films ($x \leq 0.05$), showing stark contrast to bulk crystals with suppression of superconductivity due to an appearance of bicollinear antiferromagnetism accompanied by monoclinic structural transition. By examining thickness t dependence on electrical transport properties, we observed strong suppression of the structural transition in films below t $\sim$ 100 nm, suggesting that substrate effects may stabilize superconducting phase near the interface. Furthermore, we fabricated all chalcogenide-based heterointerface between FST and magnetic topological insulator (Cr,Bi,Sb)$_{2}$Te$_{3}$ for the first time, observing both superconductivity and large anomalous Hall conductivity. The anomalous Hall conductivity increases with decreasing temperature, approaching to the quantized value of $e^2/h$ down to the measurable minimum temperature at $T_c$. The result suggests coexistence of magnetic and superconducting gaps at low temperatures opening at the top and bottom surfaces, respectively. Our novel magnetic topological insulator/superconductor heterostructure could be an ideal platform to explore chiral Majorana edge mode.


Effect of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in spin dynamics of an Antiferromagnet coupled Ferromagnetic double-barrier Magnetic Tunnel Junction. (arXiv:2310.18175v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Reeta Devi, Nimisha Dutta, Arindam Boruah, Saumen Acharjee

In this work, we have studied the spin dynamics of a synthethic Antiferromagnet (SAFM)$|$Heavy Metal (HM)$|$Ferromagnet (FM) double barrier magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) in presence of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoside interaction (RKKYI), interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (iDMI), N\'eel field and Spin-Orbit Coupling (SOC) with different Spin Transfer Torque (STT). We employ Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation to investigate the AFM dynamics of the proposed system. We found that the system exhibits a transition from regular to damped oscillations with the increase in strength of STT for systems with weaker iDMI than RKKYI while display sustained oscillatons for system having same order of iDMI and RKKYI. On the other hand the iDMI dominating system exhibits self-similar but aperiodic patterns in absence of N\'eel field. In the presence of N\'eel field, the RKKYI dominating systems exhibit chaotic oscillations for low STT but display sustained oscillation under moderate STT. Our results suggest that the decay time of oscillations can be controlled via SOC. The system can works as an oscillator for low SOC but display nonlinear characteristics with the rise in SOC for systems having weaker iDMI than RKKYI while an opposite characteristic are noticed for iDMI dominating systems. We found periodic oscillations under low external magnetic field in RKKYI dominating systems while moderate field are necessary for sustained oscillation in iDMI dominating systems. Moreover, the system exhibits saddle-node bifurcation and chaos under moderate N\'eel field and SOC with suitable iDMI and RKKYI. In addition, our results indicate that the magnon lifetime can be enhanced by increasing the strength of iDMI for both optical and acoustic modes.


Competing magnetic orders in a bilayer Hubbard model with ultracold atoms. (arXiv:2310.18204v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])
Marcell Gall, Nicola Wurz, Jens Samland, Chun Fai Chan, Michael Köhl

Fermionic atoms in optical lattices have served as a compelling model system to study and emulate the physics of strongly-correlated matter. Driven by the advances of high-resolution microscopy, the recent focus of research has been on two-dimensional systems in which several quantum phases, such as anti-ferromagnetic Mott insulators for repulsive interactions and charge-density waves for attractive interactions have been observed. However, the aspired emulations of real materials, such as bilayer graphene, have to take into account that their lattice structure composes of coupled layers and therefore is not strictly two-dimensional. In this work, we realize a bilayer Fermi-Hubbard model using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice and demonstrate that the interlayer coupling controls a crossover between a planar anti-ferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator and a band insulator of spin-singlets along the bonds between the layers. Our work will enable the exploration of further fascinating properties of coupled-layer Hubbard models, such as theoretically predicted superconducting pairing mechanisms.


Superconducting Nb$_3$Sn and related A15 compounds are Z$_2$ topological metals with three coupled Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chains. (arXiv:2310.18245v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Raghottam M. Sattigeri, Giuseppe Cuono, Ghulam Hussain, Xing Ming, Angelo Di Bernardo, Carmine Attanasio, Mario Cuoco, Carmine Autieri

Using first-principle calculations, we investigate the electronic, topological and superconducting properties of Nb$_3$X (X = Ge, Sn, Sb) and Ta$_3$Y (Y = As, Sb, Bi) A15 compounds. We demonstrate that these compounds host Dirac surface states which are related to a nontrivial Z$_2$ topological value. The spin-orbit coupling (SOC) splits the eightfold degenerate R point close to the Fermi level enhancing the amplitude of the spin Hall conductance. Indeed, despite the moderate spin-orbit of the Nb-compounds, a large spin Hall effect is also obtained in Nb$_3$Ge and Nb$_3$Sn compounds. We show that the Coulomb interaction opens the gap at the R point thus making more evident the occurrence of Dirac surface states. We then investigate the superconducting properties by determining the strength of the electron-phonon BCS coupling. The evolution of the critical temperature is tracked down to the 2D limit indicating a reduction of the transition temperature which mainly arises from the suppression of the density of states at the Fermi level. Finally, we propose a minimal tight-binding model based on three coupled Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chains with t$_{2g}$ Ta- and Nb-orbitals reproducing the spin-orbit splittings at the R point among the $\pi$-bond bands in this class of compounds. We separate the kinetic parameters in $\pi$ and $\delta$-bonds, in intradimer and interdimer hoppings and discuss their relevance for the topological electronic structure. We point out that Nb$_3$Ge might represent a Z$_2$ topological metal with the highest superconducting temperature ever recorded.


Non-Hermitian extended midgap states and bound states in the continuum. (arXiv:2310.18270v1 [physics.optics])
Maria Zelenayova, Emil J. Bergholtz

We investigate anomalous localization phenomena in non-Hermitian systems by solving a class of generalized Su-Schrieffer-Heeger/Rice-Mele models and by relating their provenance to fundamental notions of topology, symmetry-breaking and biorthogonality. We find two flavours of bound states in the continuum, both stable even in the absence of chiral symmetry. The first being skin bulk states which are protected by the spectral winding number. The second flavour is constituted by boundary modes associated with a quantized biorthogonal polarization. Furthermore, we find the extended state stemming from the boundary state that delocalizes while remaining in the gap at bulk critical points. This state may also delocalize within a continuum of localized (skin) states. These results clarify fundamental aspects of topology, and symmetry in the light of different approaches to the anomalous non-Hermitan bulk-boundary correspondence -- and are of direct experimental relevance for mechanical, electrical and photonic systems.


Origin of flat bands and non-trivial topology in coupled kagome lattices. (arXiv:2310.18276v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Anumita Bose, Arka Bandyopadhyay, Awadhesh Narayan

We propose an exact analytical decimation transformation scheme to explore the fascinating coexistence of flat bands and Dirac fermions in three-dimensional coupled kagome systems. Our method allows coarse-graining of the parameter space that maps the original system to an equivalent low-level lattice. The decimated system enables defining a quantity in the tight-binding parameter space that predominantly controls the emergence of a flat band (FB) and provides a specific criterion for absolute flatness. Likewise, in terms of atomic separations, we develop a quantity that primarily controls the FB width in real materials and thus can be helpful in predicting new systems hosting FB as well as in tuning the FB width. Our predictions on the emergence of the flat band and Dirac fermions are confirmed for M$_3$X (M= Ni, Mn, Co, Fe; X= Al, Ga, In, Sn, Cr,...) family of materials, leveraging materials databases and first-principles calculations. Our work provides an analytical formalism that enables accurate predictions of FBs in real materials.


Optical signatures of defects in BiFeO$_3$. (arXiv:2310.18296v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Sabine Körbel

Optical absorption in rhombohedral BiFeO$_3$ starts at photon energies below the photoemission band gap of $\approx$ 3 eV calculated from first principles. A shoulder at the absorption onset has so far been attributed to low-lying electronic transitions or to oxygen vacancies. In this work optical spectra are calculated ab initio to determine the nature of the optical transitions near the absorption onset of pristine BiFeO$_3$, the effect of electron-hole interaction, and the spectroscopic signatures of typical defects, i.e. doping (excess electrons or holes), intrinsic defects (oxygen and bismuth vacancies), and low-energy structural defects (ferroelectric domain walls).


Quantum simulation of the tricritical Ising model in tunable Josephson junction ladders. (arXiv:2310.18300v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Lorenzo Maffi, Niklas Tausendpfund, Matteo Rizzi, Michele Burrello

Modern hybrid superconductor-semiconductor Josephson junction arrays are a promising platform for analog quantum simulations. Their controllable and non-sinusoidal energy/phase relation opens the path to implement nontrivial interactions and study the emergence of exotic quantum phase transitions. Here, we propose the analysis of an array of hybrid Josephson junctions defining a two-leg ladder geometry for the quantum simulation of the tricritical Ising phase transition. This transition provides the paradigmatic example of minimal conformal models beyond Ising criticality and its excitations are intimately related with Fibonacci non-Abelian anyons and topological order in two dimensions. We study this superconducting system and its thermodynamic phases based on bosonization and matrix-product-states techniques. Its effective continuous description in terms of a three-frequency sine-Gordon quantum field theory suggests the presence of the targeted tricritical point and the analysis of order parameters and correlation lengths confirm this picture. Our results indicate which experimental observables can be adopted in realistic devices to probe the physics and the phase transitions of the model. Additionally, our proposal provides a useful one-dimensional building block to design two-dimensional scalable Josephson junction arrays with exotic topological order.


Implementation of a transmon qubit using superconducting granular aluminum. (arXiv:1911.02333v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)
Patrick Winkel, Kiril Borisov, Lukas Grünhaupt, Dennis Rieger, Martin Spiecker, Francesco Valenti, Alexey V. Ustinov, Wolfgang Wernsdorfer, Ioan M. Pop

The high kinetic inductance offered by granular aluminum (grAl) has recently been employed for linear inductors in superconducting high-impedance qubits and kinetic inductance detectors. Due to its large critical current density compared to typical Josephson junctions, its resilience to external magnetic fields, and its low dissipation, grAl may also provide a robust source of non-linearity for strongly driven quantum circuits, topological superconductivity, and hybrid systems. Having said that, can the grAl non-linearity be sufficient to build a qubit? Here we show that a small grAl volume ($10 \times 200 \times 500 \,\mathrm{nm^3}$) shunted by a thin film aluminum capacitor results in a microwave oscillator with anharmonicity $\alpha$ two orders of magnitude larger than its spectral linewidth $\Gamma_{01}$, effectively forming a transmon qubit. With increasing drive power, we observe several multi-photon transitions starting from the ground state, from which we extract $\alpha = 2 \pi \times 4.48\,\mathrm{MHz}$. Resonance fluorescence measurements of the $|0> \rightarrow |1>$ transition yield an intrinsic qubit linewidth $\gamma = 2 \pi \times 10\,\mathrm{kHz}$, corresponding to a lifetime of $16\,\mathrm{\mu s}$. This linewidth remains below $2 \pi \times 150\,\mathrm{kHz}$ for in-plane magnetic fields up to $\sim70\,\mathrm{mT}$.


The type-I antiferromagnetic Weyl semimetal InMnTi$_2$. (arXiv:2208.11412v3 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
Davide Grassano, Luca Binci, Nicola Marzari

Topological materials have been a main focus of studies in the past decade due to their protected properties that can be exploited for the fabrication of new devices. Among them, Weyl semimetals are a class of topological semimetals with non-trivial linear band crossing close to the Fermi level. The existence of such crossings requires the breaking of either time-reversal or inversion symmetry and is responsible for the exotic physical properties. In this work we identify the full-Heusler compound InMnTi$_2$, as a promising, easy to synthesize, $T$- and $I$-breaking Weyl semimetal. To correctly capture the nature of the magnetic state, we employed a novel $\mathrm{DFT}+U$ computational setup where all the Hubbard parameters are evaluated from first-principles; thus preserving a genuinely predictive \textit{ab initio} character of the theory. We demonstrate that this material exhibits several features that are comparatively more intriguing with respect to other known Weyl semimetals: the distance between two neighboring nodes is large enough to observe a wide range of linear dispersions in the bands, and only one kind of such node's pairs is present in the Brillouin zone. We also show the presence of Fermi arcs stable across a wide range of chemical potentials. Finally, the lack of contributions from trivial points to the low-energy properties makes the materials a promising candidate for practical devices.


Local sign stability and its implications for spectra of sparse random graphs and stability of ecosystems. (arXiv:2303.09897v2 [cond-mat.dis-nn] UPDATED)
Pietro Valigi, Izaak Neri, Chiara Cammarota

We study the spectral properties of sparse random graphs with different topologies and type of interactions, and their implications on the stability of complex systems, with particular attention to ecosystems. Specifically, we focus on the behaviour of the leading eigenvalue in different type of random matrices (including interaction matrices and Jacobian-like matrices), relevant for the assessment of different types of dynamical stability. By comparing the results on Erdos-Renyi and Husimi graphs with sign-antisymmetric interactions or mixed sign patterns, we introduce a sufficient criterion, called strong local sign stability, for stability not to be affected by system size, as traditionally implied by the complexity-stability trade-off in conventional models of random matrices. The criterion requires sign-antisymmetric or unidirectional interactions and a local structure of the graph such that the number of cycles of finite length do not increase with the system size. Note that the last requirement is stronger than the classical local tree-like condition, which we associate to the less stringent definition of local sign stability, also defined in the paper. In addition, for strong local sign stable graphs which show stability to linear perturbations irrespectively of system size, we observe that the leading eigenvalue can undergo a transition from being real to acquiring a nonnull imaginary part, which implies a dynamical transition from nonoscillatory to oscillatory linear response to perturbations. Lastly, we ascertain the discontinuous nature of this transition.


Corner states of two-dimensional second-order topological insulators with a chiral symmetry and broken time reversal and charge conjugation. (arXiv:2304.06854v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Joseph Poata, Fabio Taddei, Michele Governale

Two-dimensional second-order topological insulators are characterized by the presence of topologically protected zero-energy bound states localized at the corners of a flake. In this paper we theoretically study the occurrence and features of such corner states inside flakes in the shape of a convex polygon. We consider two different models, both in Cartan class IIIA, the first obeying inversion symmetry and the other obeying a combined $\pi/4$ rotation symmetry and time-reversal symmetry ($\hat{C}_4^z\hat{T}$). By using an analytical effective model of an edge corresponding to a massive Dirac fermion, we determine the presence of a corner state between two given edges by studying the sign of their induced masses and derive general rules for flakes in the shape of a convex polygon. In particular, we find that the number of corner states in a flake is always two in the first model, while in the second model there are either 0, 2 or 4. To corroborate our findings, we focus on flakes of specific shapes (a triangle and a square) and use a numerical finite-difference approach to determine the features of the corner states in terms of their probability density. In the case of a triangular flake, we can change the position of corner states by rotating the flake in the first model, while in the second model we can also change their number. Remarkably, when the induced mass of an edge is zero the corresponding corner state becomes delocalized along the edge. In the case of a square flake and the model with $\hat{C}_4^z\hat{T}$ symmetry, there is an orientation of the flake with respect to the crystal axes, for which the corner states extend along the whole perimeter of the square.


Negative tripartite mutual information after quantum quenches in integrable systems. (arXiv:2305.10245v2 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)
Fabio Caceffo, Vincenzo Alba

We build the quasiparticle picture for the tripartite mutual information (TMI) after quantum quenches in spin chains that can be mapped onto free-fermion theories. A nonzero TMI (equivalently, topological entropy) signals quantum correlations between three regions of a quantum many-body system. The TMI is sensitive to entangled multiplets of more than two quasiparticles, i.e., beyond the entangled-pair paradigm of the standard quasiparticle picture. Surprisingly, for some nontrivially entangled multiplets the TMI is negative at intermediate times. This means that the mutual information is monogamous, similar to holographic theories. Oppositely, for multiplets that are "classically" entangled, the TMI is positive. Crucially, a negative TMI reflects that the entanglement content of the multiplets is not directly related to the Generalized Gibbs Ensemble (GGE) that describes the post-quench steady state. Thus, the TMI is the ideal lens to observe the weakening of the relationship between entanglement and thermodynamics. We benchmark our results in the XX chain and in the transverse field Ising chain. In the hydrodynamic limit of long times and large intervals, with their ratio fixed, exact lattice results are in agreement with the quasiparticle picture.


Atomic-Scale Visualization of a Cascade of Magnetic Orders in the Layered Antiferromagnet $GdTe_{3}$. (arXiv:2308.15691v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Arjun Raghavan, Marisa Romanelli, Julian May-Mann, Anuva Aishwarya, Leena Aggarwal, Anisha G. Singh, Maja D. Bachmann, Leslie M. Schoop, Eduardo Fradkin, Ian R. Fisher, Vidya Madhavan

$GdTe_{3}$ is a layered antiferromagnet belonging to the family of rare-earth square net tritellurides which has recently attracted much attention due to its exceptionally high mobility, the presence of a novel unidirectional incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state, superconductivity under pressure, and a cascade of magnetic transitions between 12 and 7 K, whose order parameters are as yet unknown. Since the itinerant electrons and localized moments reside on different crystalline planes in this family of compounds, spin-charge interactions could potentially result in unexpected phases in this system. In this work, we use spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy to directly image the charge and magnetic orders in $GdTe_{3}$. Below 7 K, we find a striped antiferromagnetic phase with twice the periodicity of the Gd lattice and perpendicular to the CDW order. Intriguingly, between 7 and 12 K, we discover a spin density wave which has the same periodicity as the CDW. Using a minimal Landau free energy model we show that the spin density wave can arise from a bulk incipient antiferromagnetic order oriented along the $\textit{c}$-axis that couples to the CDW order. Our work reveals the order parameters of the cascade of low temperature magnetic phases in $GdTe_{3}$ and shows how the interplay between the charge and spin sectors can generate multiple coexisting magnetic orders in this class of materials.


Intertwined fractional quantum anomalous Hall states and charge density waves. (arXiv:2310.11632v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Xue-Yang Song, Chao-Ming Jian, Liang Fu, Cenke Xu

Motivated by the recent experimental breakthrough on the observation of the fractional quantum anomalous Hall (FQAH) effects in semiconductor and graphene moir\'{e} materials, we explore the rich physics associated with the coexistence of FQAH effect and the charge density wave (CDW) order that spontaneously breaks the translation symmetry. We refer to a state with both properties as "FQAH-crystal". We show that the interplay between FQAH effect and CDW can lead to a rich phase diagram including multiple topological phases and topological quantum phase transitions at the same moir\'e filling. In particular, we demonstrate the possibility of direct quantum phase transitions from a FQAH-crystal with Hall conductivity $\sigma_H = - 2/3$ to a trivial CDW insulator with $\sigma_H = 0$, and more interestingly, to a QAH-crystal with $\sigma_H= -1$.