Found 21 papers in cond-mat
Date of feed: Mon, 06 Nov 2023 01:30:00 GMT

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Real-space Formalism for the Euler Class and Fragile Topology in Quasicrystals and Amorphous Lattices. (arXiv:2311.01557v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Dexin Li, Citian Wang, Huaqing Huang

We propose a real-space formalism of the topological Euler class, which characterizes the fragile topology of two-dimensional systems with real wave functions. This real-space description is characterized by local Euler markers whose macroscopic average coincides with the Euler number, and it applies equally well to periodic and open boundary conditions for both crystals and noncrystalline systems. We validate this by diagnosing topological phase transitions in clean and disordered crystalline systems with the reality endowed by the space-time inversion symmetry $\mathcal{I}_{ST}$. Furthermore, we demonstrated the topological Euler phases in quasicrystals and even in amorphous lattices lacking any spatial symmetries. Our work not only provides a local characterization of the fragile topology but also significantly extends its territory beyond $\mathcal{I}_{ST}$-symmetric crystalline materials.

Controllable single spin evolution at sub-harmonics of electric dipole spin resonance enhanced by four-level Landau-Zener-St{\"u}ckelberg-Majorana interference. (arXiv:2311.01607v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
D.V. Khomitsky, M.V. Bastrakova, V.O. Munyaev, N.A. Zaprudnov, S.A. Studenikin

Sub-harmonics of electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) mediated by Landau-Zener-St{\"u}ckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) tunneling transitions are studied numerically and analytically in a Zeeman-split four level system with strong spin-orbit coupling that can be realized, for example, in a GaAs-based double quantum dot in a single-hole regime. The spin qubit is formed in one of the dots and the second dot is used as an auxiliary element to enhance functionality of the spin qubit. In particular, it is found that the spin rotation rate can be essentially enhanced due to the tunnel coupling with the auxiliary dot on both the main EDSR frequency and at its high sub-harmonics allowing the coherent spin $\pi$-rotations on a 10-ns time scale. Spin manipulation on high sub-harmonics is promising for new time-efficient schemes of the spin control and readout in qubit devices operating at high magnetic fields where the main harmonic is inaccessible due to hardware limitations.

Projective symmetries of three-dimensional TQFTs. (arXiv:2311.01637v1 [math.QA])
Jackson Van Dyke

Quantum field theory has various projective characteristics which are captured by what are called anomalies. This paper explores this idea in the context of fully-extended three-dimensional topological quantum field theories (TQFTs).

Given a three-dimensional TQFT (valued in the Morita 3-category of fusion categories), the anomaly identified herein is an obstruction to gauging a naturally occurring orthogonal group of symmetries, i.e. we study 't Hooft anomalies. In other words, the orthogonal group almost acts: There is a lack of coherence at the top level. This lack of coherence is captured by a "higher (central) extension" of the orthogonal group, obtained via a modification of the obstruction theory of Etingof-Nikshych-Ostrik-Meir [ENO10]. This extension tautologically acts on the given TQFT/fusion category, and this precisely classifies a projective (equivalently anomalous) TQFT. We explain the sense in which this is an analogue of the classical spin representation. This is an instance of a phenomenon emphasized by Freed [Fre23]: Quantum theory is projective.

In the appendices we establish a general relationship between the language of projectivity/anomalies and the language of topological symmetries. We also identify a universal anomaly associated with any theory which is appropriately "simple".

Correlation between spin state and activity for hydrogen evolution. (arXiv:2311.01654v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Tao Zhang, Lei Li, Tao Huang, Hui Wan, Wu-Yu Chen, Zi-Xuan Yang, Gui-Fang Huang, Wangyu Hu, Wei-Qing Hang

Spin plays a key role in physical and chemical reactions, such as oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions (OER/HER); but the spin-activity correlation has remained unclear. Based on a transition metal (TM)-doped PtN2 monolayer model with a well-defined spin center as adsorption site, we here reveal that only active spin state can enhance the strength of hydrogen adsorption, while inert spin state offers very little influence. Specifically, the unpaired electron along the out-of-plane direction such as in dZ2 orbital, acting as an active spin state, will strongly hybridize with hydrogen, resulting in enhanced hydrogen binding energy because dZ2 orbital is just enough to accommodate two electrons to form a bonding orbital. While the in-plane unpaired electron such as in dX2-Y2 orbital, plays a negligible role in adsorbing hydrogen atom. This is verified by a series of single atom catalysts comprising of PtN2 monolayer by replacing Pt atom with a TM (Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, or Ir) atom, or subsequent adsorbing a Cl atom. One of the most promising materials is Pd@PtN2-Cl that offers superior HER activity, even better than pure Pt. This work uncovers the nature of spin-activity correlation, thus paving the way for the design of high-performance catalysts through spin-engineering.

Disorder effects on the Topological Superconductor with Hubbard Interactions. (arXiv:2311.01730v1 [cond-mat.dis-nn])
Yiting Deng, Yan He

We study the two-dimensional disordered topological superconductor with Hubbard interactions. When the magnitude of the pairing potential is tuned to special values, this interacting model is exactly solvable even when disorders are imposed on the potential term or coupling constants. The topology of this model is investigated in detail by the real space Chern number formula, which computes the topological index of disordered systems to high precisions. It is found that the disorders can drive the system from topological trivial phase to a non-trivial phase, which generalizes the topological Anderson phenomena to interacting models. The self-consistent Born approximation is also employed to understand the influence of the disorders on the parameters of the interacting topological superconductor. It provide an alternative way to understand the topological transitions at weak disordered region.

Impact of nuclear effects on the ultrafast dynamics of an organic/inorganic mixed-dimensional interface. (arXiv:2311.01776v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Matheus Jacobs, Karen Fidanyan, Mariana Rossi, Caterina Cocchi

Electron dynamics at weakly bound interfaces of organic/inorganic materials are easily influenced by large-amplitude nuclear motion. In this work, we investigate the effects of different approximations to the equilibrium nuclear distributions on the ultrafast charge-carrier dynamics of a laser-excited hybrid organic/inorganic interface. By considering a prototypical system consisting of pyrene physisorbed on a MoSe$_2$ monolayer, we analyze linear absorption spectra, electronic density currents, and charge-transfer dynamics induced by a femtosecond pulse in resonance with the frontier-orbital transition in the molecule. The calculations are based on \textit{ab initio} molecular dynamics with classical and quantum thermostats, followed by time-dependent density-functional theory coupled to multi-trajectory Ehrenfest dynamics. We impinge the system with a femtosecond (fs) pulse of a few hundred GW/cm$^2$ intensity and propagate it for 100 fs. We find that the optical spectrum is insensitive to different nuclear distributions in the energy range dominated by the excitations localized on the monolayer. The pyrene resonance, in contrast, shows a small blue shift at finite temperatures, hinting at an electron-phonon-induced vibrational-level renormalization. The electronic current density following the excitation is affected by classical and quantum nuclear sampling through suppression of beating patterns and faster decay times. Interestingly, finite temperature leads to a longer stability of the ultrafast charge transfer after excitation. Overall, the results show that the ultrafast charge-carrier dynamics are dominated by electronic rather than by nuclear effects at the field strengths and time scales considered in this work.

Amplification, Mitigation and Energy Storage via Constrained Thermalization. (arXiv:2311.01795v1 [quant-ph])
Harshank Shrotriya, Midhun Krishna, Leong-Chuan Kwek, Varun Narasimhachar, Sai Vinjanampathy

Amplification (mitigation) is the increase (decrease) in the change of thermodynamic quantities when an initial thermal state is thermalized to a different temperature in the presence of constraints, studied thus far only for permutationally invariant baths. In this manuscript, we generalize amplification and mitigation to accommodate generic strong symmetries of open quantum systems and connect the phenomenon to Landauer's erasure. We exemplify our general theory with a new bath-induced battery charging protocol that overcomes the passivity of KMS-preserving transitions.

Imaging de Haas-van Alphen quantum oscillations and milli-Tesla pseudomagnetic fields. (arXiv:2311.01805v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Haibiao Zhou, Nadav Auerbach, Matan Uzan, Yaozhang Zhou, Nasrin Banu, Weifeng Zhi, Martin E. Huber, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Yuri Myasoedov, Binghai Yan, Eli Zeldov

A unique attribute of atomically thin quantum materials is the in-situ tunability of their electronic band structure by externally controllable parameters like electrostatic doping, electric field, strain, electron interactions, and displacement or twisting of atomic layers. This unparalleled control of the electronic bands has led to the discovery of a plethora of exotic emergent phenomena. But despite its key role, there is currently no versatile method for mapping the local band structure in advanced 2D materials devices in which the active layer is commonly embedded in various insulating layers and metallic gates. Utilizing a scanning superconducting quantum interference device, we image the de Haas-van Alphen quantum oscillations in a model system, the Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene with dual gates, which displays multiple highly-tunable bands. By resolving thermodynamic quantum oscillations spanning over 100 Landau levels in low magnetic fields, we reconstruct the band structure and its controllable evolution with the displacement field with unprecedented precision and spatial resolution of 150 nm. Moreover, by developing Landau level interferometry, we reveal shear-strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields and map their spatial dependence. In contrast to artificially-induced large strain, which leads to pseudomagnetic fields of hundreds of Tesla, we detect naturally occurring pseudomagnetic fields as low as 1 mT corresponding to graphene twisting by just 1 millidegree over one {\mu}m distance, two orders of magnitude lower than the typical angle disorder in high-quality twisted bilayer graphene devices. This ability to resolve the local band structure and strain on the nanoscale opens the door to the characterization and utilization of tunable band engineering in practical van der Waals devices.

Phase transitions in the Haldane-Hubbard model. (arXiv:2311.01821v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Wan-Xiu He, Rubem Mondaini, Hong-Gang Luo, Xiaoqun Wang, Shijie Hu

The Haldane-Hubbard model is a prime example of the combined effects of band topology and electronic interaction. We revisit its spinful phase diagram at half-filling as a consensus on the presence of SU($2$) symmetry is currently lacking. To start, we utilize the Hartree-Fock mean-field method, which offers a direct understanding of symmetry breaking through the effective mass term that can acquire spin dependence. Our results, in agreement with previous studies, provide an instructive insight into the regime where the Chern number $C=1$, with only one spin species remaining topological. Besides that, we numerically study the phase diagram of the Haldane-Hubbard model via a large-scale infinite-density matrix renormalization group (iDMRG) method. The phase boundaries are determined by the Chern number and the correlation lengths obtained from the transfer-matrix spectrum. Unlike previous studies, the iDMRG method investigates the Haldane-Hubbard model on a thin and infinitely long cylinder and examines scenarios consistent with the two-dimensional thermodynamic limit. Here, the phase diagram we obtained qualitatively goes beyond the Hartree-Fock scope, particularly in the $C=1$ region, and serves as a quantitative benchmark for further theoretical and experimental investigations.

Topological phases of strongly-interacting time-reversal invariant topological superconducting chains under a magnetic field. (arXiv:2311.01880v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Leandro M. Chinellato, Claudio J. Gazza, Alejandro M. Lobos, Armando A. Aligia

Using the density-matrix renormalization group, we determine the different topological phases and low-energy excitations of a time-reversal invariant topological superconducting (TRITOPS) wire with extended s-wave superconductivity, Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and on-site repulsion $U$, under an externally applied Zeeman field $J$. For the case in which $J$ is perpendicular to the SOC, the model describes a chain of Shiba impurities on top of a superconductor with extended superconductor pairing. We identify the different topological phases of the model at temperature $T=0$, and in particular study the stability of the TRITOPS phase against the Zeeman field $J$ and the chemical potential $\mu$, for different values of $U$. In the case where the magnetic field $J$ is perpendicular to the SOC axis, the pair of Kramers-degenerate Majorana zero modes at the edges of the system that exist for $J=0$, remain degenerate until a critical value of the magnetic field is reached. For $J$ parallel to the SOC and up to moderate values of $U$, the fractional spin projection $\langle S_y \rangle=1/4$ at the ends, found for non-interacting wires at $U=0$, is recovered. In addition, the analytic expression that relates $\langle S_y \rangle$ with $J$ for finite non-interacting chains is shown to be universal up to moderate values of $U$.

From conductance viewed as transmission to resistance viewed as reflection. An extension of Landauer quantum paradigm to the classical case at finite temperature. (arXiv:2311.01942v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Lino Reggiani, Eleonora Alfinito, Federico Intini

In this paper we present an extension of Landauer paradigm, conductance is transmission, to the case of macroscopic classical conductors making use of a description of conductance and resistance based on the application of the fluctuation dissipation (FD) theorem. The main result is summarized in the expressions below for conductance $G$ and resistance $R$ at thermodynamic equilibrium, with the usual meaning of symbols. $G$ is given in terms of the variance of total carrier number fluctuations between two ideal transparent contacts in an open system described by a grand canonical ensemble as

$$ G =\frac{e^2 \overline{v_x'^2} \tau}{L^2 K_BT} \overline{\delta N^2} %= \frac{e^2 \sqrt{\overline{v_x'^2}} \Gamma }{L K_BT} \overline{\delta %N^2} %= \frac{e^2 \overline{N} \Gamma } {Lm\sqrt{\overline{v_x'^2}}} \ \ \ \ $$

By contrast $R$ is given in terms of the variance of carrier drift-velocity fluctuations due to the instantaneous carrier specular reflection at the internal contact interfaces of a closed system described by a canonical ensemble as

$$ R= \frac{(m L)^2}{e^2 K_BT \tau} \overline{\delta v_d^2} %= \frac {Lm\sqrt{\overline{v_x'^2}}} {e^2 \overline{N} \Gamma } $$

The FD approach gives evidence of the duality property of conductance related to transmission and resistance related to reflection. Remarkably, the expressions above are shown to recover the quantum Landauer paradigm in the limit of zero temperature for a one-dimensional conductor.

Unraveling the Hyperfine Structure of Entanglement with the Decomposition of R\'enyi Contour. (arXiv:2311.01997v1 [quant-ph])
Liang-Hong Mo, Yao Zhou, Jia-Rui Sun, Peng Ye

Entanglement contour and R\'{e}nyi contour reflect the real-space distribution of entanglement entropy, serving as the fine structure of entanglement. In this work, we unravel the hyperfine structure by rigorously decomposing R\'{e}nyi contour into the contributions from particle-number cumulants. We show that the hyperfine structure, introduced as a quantum-information concept, has several properties, such as additivity, normalization, symmetry, and unitary invariance. To extract the underlying physics of the hyperfine structure, we numerically study lattice fermion models with mass gap, critical point, and Fermi surface, and observe that different behaviors appear in the contributions from higher-order particle-number cumulants. We also identify exotic scaling behaviors in the case of mass gap with nontrivial topology, signaling the existence of topological edge states. In conformal field theory (CFT), we derive the dominant hyperfine structure of both R\'{e}nyi entropy and refined R\'{e}nyi entropy. By employing the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence, we find that the refined R\'{e}nyi contour can be holographically obtained by slicing the bulk extremal surfaces. The extremal surfaces extend outside the entanglement wedge of the corresponding extremal surface for entanglement entropy, which provides an exotic tool to probe the hyperfine structure of the subregion-subregion duality in the entanglement wedge reconstruction. This paper is concluded with an experimental protocol and interdisciplinary research directions for future study.

Observation of pressure-induced Weyl state and superconductivity in a chirality-neutral Weyl semimetal candidate SrSi2. (arXiv:2106.11332v2 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
M.-Y. Yao, J. Noky, Q.-G. Mu, K. Manna, N. Kumar, V. N. Strocov, C. Shekhar, S. Medvedev, Y. Sun, C. Felser

Quasi-particle excitations in solids described by the Weyl equation have attracted significant attention in recent years. Thus far, a wide range of solids that have been experimentally realized as Weyl semimetals (WSMs) lack either mirror or inversion symmetry. For the first time, in the absence of both mirror and inversion symmetry, SrSi2 has been predicted as a robust WSM by recent theoretical works. Herein, supported by first-principles calculations, we present systematic angle-resolved photoemission studies of undoped SrSi2 and Ca-doped SrSi2 single crystals. Our results show no evidence of the predicted Weyl fermions at the kz = 0 plane or the Fermi arcs on the (001) surface. With external pressure, the electronic band structure evolved and induced Weyl fermions in this compound, as revealed by first-principle calculations combined with electrical transport property measurements. Moreover, a superconducting transition was observed at pressures above 20 GPa. Our investigations indicate that the SrSi2 system is a good platform for studying topological transitions and correlations with superconductivity.

Proximate Dirac spin liquid in honeycomb lattice $J_1$-$J_3$ XXZ model: Numerical study and application to cobaltates. (arXiv:2212.13271v4 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Anjishnu Bose, Manodip Routh, Sreekar Voleti, Sudeep Kumar Saha, Manoranjan Kumar, Tanusri Saha-Dasgupta, Arun Paramekanti

Recent theoretical and experimental work suggest that the honeycomb cobaltates, initially proposed as candidate Kitaev quantum magnets, are in fact described by a pseudospin-$1/2$ easy-plane spin Hamiltonian with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic (FM) exchange $J_1$ being frustrated by antiferromagnetic third-neighbor exchange $J_3$ and weaker compass anisotropies. Using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations, we show that this model exhibits FM order at small $J_3/J_1$ and zig-zag (ZZ) order at large $J_3/J_1$, separated by an intermediate phase, which we label as $\widetilde{\mathrm{SL}}$. This $\widetilde{\mathrm{SL}}$ phase is shown to exhibit spin-liquid-like correlations in DMRG, although we cannot preclude weak broken symmetries, e.g. weak Ising type N\'eel order, given the limits on our explored system sizes. Using a modified parton mean field theory and variational Monte Carlo on Gutzwiller projected wavefunctions, we show that the optimal FM and ZZ orders as well as the intermediate $\widetilde{\mathrm{SL}}$ state are proximate to a `parent' Dirac spin liquid (SL). This Dirac SL is shown to capture the broad continuum in the temperature and magnetic field dependent terahertz spectroscopy of BaCo$_2$(AsO$_4$)$_2$, and the reported low temperature metallic thermal conductivity in Na$_2$Co$_2$TeO$_6$ and BaCo$_2$(AsO$_4$)$_2$ upon incorporating disorder induced broadening.

Charge 4e superconductivity and chiral metal in the $45^\circ$-twisted bilayer cuprates and similar bilayers. (arXiv:2301.06357v4 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)
Yu-Bo Liu, Jing Zhou, Congjun Wu, Fan Yang

The material realization of the charge-4e/6e superconductivity (SC) is a big challenge. Here we propose realization of the charge-4e SC and chiral metal through stacking a homo-bilayer with the largest twist angle, forming the twist-bilayer quasi-crystal (TB-QC), exampled by the 45$^\circ$-twisted bilayer cuprates and 30$^\circ$-twisted bilayer graphene. When each mononlayer hosts a pairing state with the largest pairing angular momentum, previous studies yield that the second-order interlayer Josephson coupling would drive chiral topological SC (TSC) in the TB-QC. Here we propose that, above the $T_c$ of the chiral TSC, either the total- or relative- pairing phase of the two layers can be unilateral quasi-ordered or ordered, leading to the charge-4e SC or the chiral metal phase. Based on a thorough symmetry analysis to get the low-energy effective Hamiltonian, we conduct a combined renormalization-group and Monte-Carlo study and obtain the phase diagram, which includes the charge-4e SC and chiral metal phases.

Classical shadows based on locally-entangled measurements. (arXiv:2305.10723v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)
Matteo Ippoliti

We study classical shadows protocols based on randomized measurements in $n$-qubit entangled bases, generalizing the random Pauli measurement protocol ($n = 1$). We show that entangled measurements ($n\geq 2$) enable nontrivial and potentially advantageous trade-offs in the sample complexity of learning Pauli expectation values. This is sharply illustrated by shadows based on two-qubit Bell measurements: the scaling of sample complexity with Pauli weight $k$ improves quadratically (from $\sim 3^k$ down to $\sim 3^{k/2}$) for many operators, while others become impossible to learn. Tuning the amount of entanglement in the measurement bases defines a family of protocols that interpolate between Pauli and Bell shadows, retaining some of the benefits of both. For large $n$, we show that randomized measurements in $n$-qubit GHZ bases further improve the best scaling to $\sim (3/2)^k$, albeit on an increasingly restricted set of operators. Despite their simplicity and lower hardware requirements, these protocols can match or outperform recently-introduced "shallow shadows" in some practically-relevant Pauli estimation tasks.

Femtomolar detection of the heart failure biomarker NT-proBNP in artificial saliva using an immersible liquid-gated aptasensor with reduced graphene oxide. (arXiv:2307.16692v2 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
Stefan Jaric, Anastasiia Kudriavtseva, Nikita Nekrasov, Alexey V. Orlov, Ivan A. Komarov, Leonty A. Barsukov, Ivana Gadjanski, Petr I. Nikitin, Ivan Bobrinetskiy

Measuring NT-proBNP biomarker is recommended for preliminary diagnostics of the heart failure. Recent studies suggest a possibility of early screening of biomarkers in saliva for non-invasive identification of cardiac diseases at the point-of-care. However, NT-proBNP concentrations in saliva can be thousand time lower than in blood plasma, going down to pg/mL level. To reach this level, we developed a label-free aptasensor based on a liquid-gated field effect transistor using a film of reduced graphene oxide monolayer (rGO-FET) with immobilized NT-proBNP specific aptamer. We found that, depending on ionic strength of tested solutions, there were different levels of correlation in responses of electrical parameters of the rGO-FET aptasensor, namely, the Dirac point shift and transconductance change. The correlation in response to NT-proBNP was high for 1.6 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and zero for 16 mM PBS in a wide range of analyte concentrations, varied from 1 fg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The effects of transconductance and Dirac point shift in PBS solutions of different concentrations are discussed. The biosensor exhibited a high sensitivity for both transconductance (2 uS/decade) and Dirac point shift (2.3 mV/decade) in diluted PBS with the linear range from 10 fg/mL to 1 pg/mL. The aptasensor performance has been also demonstrated in undiluted artificial saliva with the achieved limit of detection down to 41 fg/mL (~4.6 fM).

Three-Dimensional Quantum Hall Effect in Topological Amorphous Metals. (arXiv:2309.05990v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Jiong-Hao Wang, Yong Xu

Weyl semimetals have been theoretically predicted to become topological metals with anomalous Hall conductivity in amorphous systems. However, measuring the anomalous Hall conductivity in realistic materials, particularly those with multiple pairs of Weyl points, is a significant challenge. If a system respects time-reversal symmetry, then the anomalous Hall conductivity even vanishes. As such, it remains an open question how to probe the Weyl band like topology in amorphous materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that, under magnetic fields, a topological metal slab in amorphous systems exhibits three-dimensional quantum Hall effect, even in time-reversal invariant systems, thereby providing a feasible approach to exploring Weyl band like topology in amorphous materials. We unveil the topological origin of the quantized Hall conductance by calculating the Bott index. The index is carried by broadened Landau levels with bulk states spatially localized except at critical transition energies. The topological property also results in edge states localized at distinct hinges on two opposite surfaces.

Intervalley coherence and intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in rhombohedral trilayer graphene. (arXiv:2310.03781v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Trevor Arp, Owen Sheekey, Haoxin Zhou, C.L. Tschirhart, Caitlin L. Patterson, H. M. Yoo, Ludwig Holleis, Evgeny Redekop, Grigory Babikyan, Tian Xie, Jiewen Xiao, Yaar Vituri, Tobias Holder, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Martin E. Huber, Erez Berg, Andrea F. Young

Rhombohedral graphene multilayers provide a clean and highly reproducible platform to explore the emergence of superconductivity and magnetism in a strongly interacting electron system. Here, we use electronic compressibility and local magnetometry to explore the phase diagram of this material class in unprecedented detail. We focus on rhombohedral trilayer in the quarter metal regime, where the electronic ground state is characterized by the occupation of a single spin and valley isospin flavor. Our measurements reveal a subtle competition between valley imbalanced (VI) orbital ferromagnets and intervalley coherent (IVC) states in which electron wave functions in the two momentum space valleys develop a macroscopically coherent relative phase. Contrasting the in-plane spin susceptibility of the IVC and VI phases reveals the influence of graphene's intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, which drives the emergence of a distinct correlated phase with hybrid VI and IVC character. Spin-orbit also suppresses the in-plane magnetic susceptibility of the VI phase, which allows us to extract the spin-orbit coupling strength of $\lambda \approx 50\mu$eV for our hexagonal boron nitride-encapsulated graphene system. We discuss the implications of finite spin-orbit coupling on the spin-triplet superconductors observed in both rhombohedral and twisted graphene multilayers.

Improving power-grid systems via topological changes, or how self-organized criticality can help stability. (arXiv:2310.09042v2 [physics.soc-ph] UPDATED)
Géza Ódor, István Papp, Kristóf Benedek, Bálint Hartmann

Cascade failures in power grids occur when the failure of one component or subsystem causes a chain reaction of failures in other components or subsystems, ultimately leading to a widespread blackout or outage. Controlling cascade failures on power grids is important for many reasons like economic impact, national security, public safety and even rippled effects like troubling transportation systems. Monitoring the networks on node level has been suggested by many, either controlling all nodes of a network or by subsets. This study identifies sensitive graph elements of the weighted European power-grids (from 2016, 2022) by two different methods. Bridges are determined between communities and "weak" nodes are selected by the lowest local synchronization of the swing equation. In the latter case we add bypasses of the same number as the bridges at weak nodes, and we compare the synchronization, cascade failure behavior by the dynamical improvement with the purely topological changes. The results are also compared if bridges are removed from networks, which results in a case similar to islanding, and with the addition of links at randomly selected places. Bypassing was found to improve synchronization the best, while the average cascade sizes are the lowest with bridge additions. However, for very large or small global couplings these network changes do not help, they seem to be useful near the synchronization transition region, where self-organization drives the power-grid. Thus, we provide a demonstration for the Braess' Paradox on continent-sized power grid simulations and uncover the limitations of this phenomenon. We also determine the cascade size distributions and justify the power-law tails near the transition point on these grids.

Electric Fields Near Undulating Dielectric Membranes. (arXiv:2311.00570v2 [cond-mat.soft] UPDATED)
Nicholas Pogharian, Alexandre P. dos Santos, Monica Olvera de la Cruz

Dielectric interfaces are crucial to the behavior of charged membranes, from graphene to synthetic and biological lipid bilayers. Understanding electrolyte behavior near these interfaces remains a challenge, especially in the case of rough dielectric surfaces. A lack of analytical solutions consigns this problem to numerical treatments. We report an analytic method for determining electrostatic potentials near curved dielectric membranes in a two-dimensional periodic 'slab' geometry using a periodic summation of Green's functions. This method is amenable to simulating arbitrary groups of charges near surfaces with two-dimensional deformations. We concentrate on one-dimensional undulations. We show that increasing membrane undulation increases the asymmetry of interfacial charge distributions due to preferential ionic repulsion from troughs. In the limit of thick membranes we recover results mimicking those for electrolytes near a single interface. Our work demonstrates that rough surfaces generate charge patterns in electrolytes of charged molecules or mixed-valence ions.