Found 36 papers in cond-mat
Date of feed: Tue, 02 Jan 2024 01:30:00 GMT

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Optoelectronic Readout of single Er Adatom's Electronic States Adsorbed on the Si(100) Surface at Low Temperature (9K). (arXiv:2401.00034v1 [])
Eric Duverger, Damien Riedel

Integrating nanoscale opto-electronic functions is vital for applications such as optical emitters, detectors, and quantum information. Lanthanide atoms show great potential in this endeavor due to their intrinsic transitions. Here, we investigate Er adatoms on Si(100)-2x1 at 9K using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) coupled to a tunable laser. Er adatoms display two main adsorption configurations that are optically excited between 800 nm and 1200 nm while the STM reads the resulting photocurrents. Our spectroscopic method reveals that various photocurrent signals stem from the bare silicon surface or Er adatoms. Additional photocurrent peaks appear as the signature of the Er adatoms relaxation, triggering efficient dissociation of nearby trapped excitons. Calculations using the density functional theory with spin-orbit coupling correction highlight the origin of the observed photocurrent peaks as specific 4f->4f or 4f->5d transitions. This spectroscopic technique can pave the way to an optoelectronic analysis of atomic and molecular assemblies by offering unique insight into their intrinsic quantum properties.

Many-body higher-order topological invariant for $C_n$-symmetric insulators. (arXiv:2401.00050v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Ammar Jahin, Yuan-Ming Lu, Yuxuan Wang

Higher-order topological insulators in two spatial dimensions display fractional corner charges. While fractional charges in one dimension are known to be captured by a many-body bulk invariant, computed by the Resta formula, a many-body bulk invariant for higher-order topology and the corresponding fractional corner charges remains elusive despite several attempts. Inspired by recent work by Tada and Oshikawa, we propose a well-defined many-body bulk invariant for $C_n$ symmetric higher-order topological insulators, which is valid for both non-interacting and interacting systems. Instead of relating them to the bulk quadrupole moment as was previously done, we show that in the presence of $C_n$ rotational symmetry, this bulk invariant can be directly identified with quantized fractional corner charges. In particular, we prove that the corner charge is quantized as $e/n$ with $C_n$ symmetry, leading to a $\mathbb{Z}_n$ classification for higher-order topological insulators in two dimensions.

Absence of Weyl nodes in EuCd$_2$As$_2$ revealed by the carrier density dependence of the anomalous Hall effect. (arXiv:2401.00138v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Yue Shi, Zhaoyu Liu, Logan A. Burnett, Seokhyeong Lee, Chaowei Hu, Qianni Jiang, Jiaqi Cai, Xiaodong Xu, Cheng-Chien Chen, Jiun-Haw Chu

The antiferromagnetic layered compound EuCd$_2$As$_2$ is widely considered as a leading candidate of ideal Weyl semimetal, featuring a single pair of Weyl nodes in its field-induced ferromagnetic (FM) state. Nevertheless, this view has recently been challenged by an optical spectroscopy study, which suggests that it is a magnetic semiconductor. In this study, we have successfully synthesized highly insulating EuCd$_2$As$_2$ crystals with carrier density reaching as low as $2\times 10^{15}$ $\text{cm}^{-3}$. The magneto-transport measurements revealed a progressive decrease of the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) by several orders of magnitude as the carrier density decreases. This behavior contradicts with what is expected from the intrinsic AHC generated by the Weyl points, which is independent of carrier density as the Fermi level approaches the charge neutrality point. In contrast, the scaling relationship between AHC and longitudinal conductivity aligns with the characteristics of variable range hopping insulators. Our results suggest that EuCd$_2$As$_2$ is a magnetic semiconductor rather than a topological Weyl semimetal.

Coarsening of topological defects in 2D polar active matter. (arXiv:2401.00203v1 [cond-mat.soft])
Soumyadeep Mondal, Pankaj Popli, Sumantra Sarkar

We numerically study the coarsening of topological defects in 2D polar active matter and make several interesting observations and predictions. (i) The long time state is characterized by nonzero density of defects, in stark contrast to theoretical expectations. (ii) The kinetics of defect coarsening shows power law decay to steady state, as opposed to exponential decay in thermal equilibrium. (iii) Observations (i) and (ii) together suggest emergent screening of topological charges due to activity. (iv) Nontrivial defect coarsening in the active model leads to nontrivial steady state patterns. We investigate, characterize, and validate these patterns and discuss their biological significance.

Edge and bulk states in Weyl-orbit quantum Hall effect as studied by Corbino measurements. (arXiv:2401.00224v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
Yusuke Nakazawa, Ryosuke Kurihara, Masatoshi Miyazawa, Shinichi Nishihaya, Markus Kriener, Masashi Tokunaga, Masashi Kawasaki, Masaki Uchida

We investigate edge and bulk states in Weyl-orbit based quantum Hall effect by measuring a Corbino-type device fabricated from a topological Dirac semimetal (Cd1-xZnx)3As2 film. Clear quantum Hall plateaus are observed when measuring one-sided terminals of the Corbino-type device. This indicates that edge states of the Weyl-orbit quantum Hall effect form closed trajectories consisting of Fermi arcs and chiral zero modes independently on inner and outer sides. On the other hand, the bulk resistance does not diverge at fields where the quantum Hall plateau appears, suggesting that the Weyl orbits in the bulk region are not completely localized when applying electric current through the bulk region.

Strain induced electronic and magnetic transition in S = 3/2 antiferromagnetic spin chain compound LaCrS3. (arXiv:2401.00239v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Kuldeep Kargeti, Aadit Sen, S. K. Panda

Exploring the physics of low-dimensional spin systems and their pressure-driven electronic and magnetic transitions are thriving research field in modern condensed matter physics. In this context, recently antiferromagnetic Cr-based compounds such as CrI3, CrBr3, CrGeTe3 have been investigated experimentally and theoretically for their possible spintronics applications. Motivated by the fundamental and industrial importance of these materials, we theoretically studied the electronic and magnetic properties of a relatively less explored Cr-based chalcogenide, namely LaCrS3 where 2D layers of magnetic Cr3+ ions form a rectangular lattice. We employed density functional theory + Hubbard U approach in conjunction with constrained random-phase approximation (cRPA) where the later was used to estimate the strength of U. Our findings at ambient pressure show that the system exhibits semiconducting antiferromagnetic ground state with a gap of 0.5 eV and large Cr moments that corresponds to nominal S=3/2 spin-state. The 1st nearest neighbor (NN) interatomic exchange coupling (J1) is found to be strongly antiferromagnetic (AFM), while 2nd NN couplings are relatively weaker ferromagnetic (FM), making this system a candidate for 1D non-frustrated antiferromagnetic spin-chain family of materials. Based on orbital resolved interactions, we demonstrated the reason behind two different types of interactions among 1st and 2nd NN despite their very similar bond lengths. We observe a significant spin-orbit coupling effect, giving rise to a finite magneto crystalline anisotropy, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. Further, we found that by applying uniaxial tensile strain along crystallographic a and b-axis, LaCrS3 exhibits a magnetic transition to a semi-conducting FM ground state, while compression gives rise to the realization of novel gapless semiconducting antiferromagnetic ground state.

The Impact of Thermosolutal Convection on Melting Dynamics of Nano-enhanced Phase Change Materials (NePCM). (arXiv:2401.00251v1 [physics.flu-dyn])
Yousef El Hasadi

Nanoparticle-Enhanced Phase Change Materials (NePCM) have been a subject of intensive research owing to their potential for enhanced thermo-physical properties. However, their behavior during phase change processes, such as melting or solidification, remains inadequately understood\@. This investigation focuses on the melting process of NePCM in a square cavity, exploring distinct cases of melting from both the top and bottom sides. The NePCM comprises copper nanoparticles (2 nm in size) suspended in water. Our study involves different combinations of constant temperature boundary conditions and particle volume fractions\@. Utilizing a numerical model based on the one-fluid mixture approach combined with the single-domain enthalpy-porosity model, we account for the phase change process and particles' interaction with the solid-liquid interface. When melting NePCM from the top side, convection effects are suppressed, resulting in a melting process primarily governed by conduction. Both NePCM and pure water melt at the same rate under these conditions. However, melting NePCM from the bottom side induces convection-dominated melting. For pure water, thermal convection leads to the formation of convection cells during melting. Contrastingly, melting NePCM triggers thermosolutal convection due to temperature and particle concentration gradients. The flow cells formed from thermosolutal convection in NePCM differ from those in pure water driven by pure thermal convection. Our simulations reveal that thermosolutal convection contributes to decelerating the solid-liquid interface, thereby prolonging NePCM melting compared to pure water. Surprisingly, the viscosity increase in NePCM plays a minimal role in the deceleration process, contrary to prior literature attributing slow-downs of the melting process of the NePCM primarily to increased viscosity.

An unconventional platform for two-dimensional Kagome flat bands on semiconductor surfaces. (arXiv:2401.00265v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Jae Hyuck Lee, GwanWoo Kim, Inkyung Song, Yejin Kim, Yeonjae Lee, Sung Jong Yoo, Deok-Yong Cho, Jun-Won Rhim, Jongkeun Jung, Gunn Kim, Changyoung Kim

In condensed matter physics, the Kagome lattice and its inherent flat bands have attracted considerable attention for their potential to host a variety of exotic physical phenomena. Despite extensive efforts to fabricate thin films of Kagome materials aimed at modulating the flat bands through electrostatic gating or strain manipulation, progress has been limited. Here, we report the observation of a novel $d$-orbital hybridized Kagome-derived flat band in Ag/Si(111) $\sqrt{3}\times\sqrt{3}$ as revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that silver atoms on a silicon substrate form a Kagome-like structure, where a delicate balance in the hopping parameters of the in-plane $d$-orbitals leads to destructive interference, resulting in a flat band. These results not only introduce a new platform for Kagome physics but also illuminate the potential for integrating metal-semiconductor interfaces into Kagome-related research, thereby opening a new avenue for exploring ideal two-dimensional Kagome systems.

Dynamics of oscillator populations with disorder in the coupling phase shifts. (arXiv:2401.00281v1 [nlin.AO])
Arkady Pikovsky, Franco Bagnoli

We study populations of oscillators, all-to-all coupled by means of quenched disordered phase shifts. While there is no traditional synchronization transition with a nonvanishing Kuramoto order parameter, the system demonstrates a specific order as the coupling strength increases. This order is characterized by partial phase locking, which is put into evidence by the introduced correlation order parameter and via frequency entrainment. Simulations with phase oscillators, Stuart-Landau oscillators, and chaotic Roessler oscillators demonstrate similar scaling of the correlation order parameter with the coupling and the system size and also similar behavior of the frequencies with maximal entrainment at some finite coupling.

Pairing Symmetry and Fermion Projective Symmetry Groups. (arXiv:2401.00321v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Xu Yang, Shuangyuan Lu, Sayak Biswas, Mohit Randeria, Yuan-Ming Lu

The Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory is very successful in describing the pairing symmetry, a fundamental characterization of the broken symmetries in a paired superfluid or superconductor. However, GL theory does not describe fermionic excitations such as Bogoliubov quasiparticles or Andreev bound states that are directly related to topological properties of the superconductor. In this work, we show that the symmetries of the fermionic excitations are captured by a Projective Symmetry Group (PSG), which is a group extension of the bosonic symmetry group in the superconducting state. We further establish a correspondence between the pairing symmetry and the fermion PSG. When the normal and superconducting states share the same spin rotational symmetry, there is a simpler correspondence between the pairing symmetry and the fermion PSG, which we enumerate for all 32 crystalline point groups. We also discuss the general framework for computing PSGs when the spin rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken in the superconducting state. This PSG formalism leads to experimental consequences, and as an example, we show how a given pairing symmetry dictates the classification of topological superconductivity.

Direct observation of split-mode exciton-polaritons in a single MoS$_2$ nanotube. (arXiv:2401.00348v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])
A.I. Galimov, D.R. Kazanov, A.V. Poshakinskiy, M.V. Rakhlin, I.A. Eliseyev, A.A. Toropov, M. Remskar, T.V. Shubina

A single nanotube synthesized from a transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) exhibits strong exciton resonances and, in addition, can support optical whispering gallery modes. This combination is promising for observing exciton-polaritons without an external cavity. However, traditional energy-momentum-resolved detection methods are unsuitable for this tiny object. Instead, we propose to use split optical modes in a twisted nanotube with the flattened cross-section, where a gradually decreasing gap between the opposite walls leads to a change in mode energy, similar to the effect of the barrier width on the eigenenergies in the double-well potential. Using micro-reflectance spectroscopy, we investigated the rich pattern of polariton branches in single MoS$_2$ tubes with both variable and constant gaps. Observed Rabi splitting in the 40 - 60 meV range is comparable to that for a MoS$_2$ monolayer in a microcavity. Our results, based on the polariton dispersion measurements and polariton dynamics analysis, present a single TMDC nanotube as a perfect polaritonic structure for nanophotonics.

From Fractional Quantum Anomalous Hall Smectics to Polar Smectic Metals: Nontrivial Interplay Between Electronic Liquid Crystal Order and Topological Order in Correlated Topological Flat Bands. (arXiv:2401.00363v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Hongyu Lu, Han-Qing Wu, Bin-Bin Chen, Kai Sun, Zi Yang Meng

Integer or fractional quantum Hall crystals, states postulating the coexistence of charge order with integer or fractional quantum Hall effect, have long been proposed in theoretical studies in Landau levels. Inspired by recent experiments on integer or fractional quantum anomalous Hall (IQAH/FQAH) states in MoTe2 and rhombohedral multilayer graphene, this work examines the archetypal correlated flat band model on a checkerboard lattice at filling {\nu} = 2/3. Interestingly, at this filling level, we find that this topological flatband does not stabilize conventional FQAH states. Instead, the unique interplay between smectic charge order and topological order gives rise to two intriguing quantum states. As the interaction strength increases, the system first transitions from a Fermi liquid into FQAH smectic (FQAHS) states, where FQAH topological order coexists cooperatively with smectic charge order. With a further increase in interaction strength, the system undergoes another quantum phase transition and evolves into a polar smectic metal. Contrary to conventional smectic order and FQAHS states, this gapless state spontaneously breaks the two-fold rotational symmetry, resulting in a nonzero electric dipole moment and ferroelectric order. In addition to identifying the ground states, large-scale numerical simulations are also used to study low-energy excitations and thermodynamic characteristics. We find that FQAHS states exhibit two distinct temperature scales: the onset of charge order and the onset of the fractional Hall plateau, respectively. Interestingly, the latter is dictated by charge-neutral low-energy excitations with finite momenta, known as magnetorotons. Our studies suggest that these nontrivial phenomena could, in principle, be accessed in future experiments with moir\'e systems.

Electrical and thermal transport properties of kagome metals AV3Sb5 (A=K, Rb, Cs). (arXiv:2401.00410v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Xinrun Mi, Kunya Yang, Yuhan Gan, Long Zhang, Aifeng Wang, Yisheng Chai, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Mingquan He

The interplay between lattice geometry, band topology and electronic correlations in the newly discovered kagome compounds AV3Sb5 (A=K, Rb, Cs) makes this family a novel playground to investigate emergent quantum phenomena, such as unconventional superconductivity, chiral charge density wave and electronic nematicity. These exotic quantum phases naturally leave nontrivial fingerprints in transport properties of AV3Sb5, both in electrical and thermal channels, which are prominent probes to uncover the underlying mechanisms. In this brief review, we highlight the unusual electrical and thermal transport properties observed in the unconventional charge ordered state of AV3Sb5, including giant anomalous Hall, anomalous Nernst, ambipolar Nernst and anomalous thermal Hall effects. Connections of these anomalous transport properties to time-reversal symmetry breaking, topological and multiband fermiology, as well as electronic nematicity, are also discussed. Finally, a perspective together with challenges of this rapid growing field are given.

Magnetic properties at various fillings of the quasiflat band in a fermionic two-leg ladder model. (arXiv:2401.00483v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Paban Kumar Patra, Yixuan Huang, Hridis K. Pal

A recent study has demonstrated that a fermionic two-leg ladder model, threaded by a flux and characterized by a spatially varying interleg hopping term, gives rise to a quasiflat low-energy band. This band exhibits an unusual ground state at half filling in the presence of interaction -- a ferromagnetic Mott insulator. In this paper, we extend the study of this model to other fillings of the quasiflat band and explore the magnetic properties of the ground state at these fillings. In particular, we study four fillings: one-quarter, three-quarters, slightly above half filling (half filling plus two electrons), and slightly below half-filling (half filling minus two electrons). Incorporating interaction within the Hubbard model and using the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method to find the ground states, we find that the spin-spin correlation is ferromagnetic at fillings less than half, similar to that observed at half filling, but is antiferromagnetic beyond half filling. Interestingly, these results hold only when mixing between the lowest quasiflat band and the next-to-lowest dispersive band is negligible; once mixing between the two bands is facilitated by increasing the interaction strength, the correlation becomes ferromagnetic above half filling as well. Additionally, by reducing the strength of the interaction in comparison to the bandwidth, a transition from the ferromagnetic to the antiferromagnetic state is observed in all the cases.

Analytical Model for Atomic Relaxation in Twisted Moir\'e Materials. (arXiv:2401.00498v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Mohammed M. Al Ezzi, Gayani N. Pallewela, Shaffique Adam

By virtue of being atomically thin, the electronic properties of heterostructures built from two-dimensional materials are strongly influenced by atomic relaxation where the atomic layers should be thought of as membranes rather than rigid 2D crystals. We develop an analytical treatment of lattice relaxation for twisted 2D moir\'e materials obtaining semi-analytical results for lattice displacements, real and momentum space moir\'e potentials, pseudomagnetic fields and electronic band structures. We benchmark our results for twisted bilayer graphene and twisted homobilayers of tungsten diselenide using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations finding that our theory is valid for magic angle twisted bilayer graphene (angles $\gtrsim 1^\circ$), and for twisted TMDs for twist angles $\gtrsim$ 7 degrees.

Higher-Order Cellular Automata Generated Symmetry-Protected Topological Phases and Detection Through Multi-Point Strange Correlators. (arXiv:2401.00505v1 [cond-mat.str-el])
Jie-Yu Zhang, Meng-Yuan Li, Peng Ye

Higher-order cellular automata (HOCA) are a type of cellular automata that evolve over multiple time steps. These HOCA generate intricate patterns within the spacetime lattice, which can be utilized to create symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases. The symmetries of these phases are not global, but act on lower-dimensional subsystems of the lattice, such as lines or fractals. These are referred to as HOCA generated SPT (HGSPT) phases. These phases naturally encompass previously studied phases with subsystem symmetries, including symmetry-protected topological phases protected by symmetries supported on regular (e.g., line-like, membrane-like) and fractal subsystems. Moreover, these phases include models with subsystem symmetries that extend beyond previously studied phases. They include mixed-subsystem SPT (MSPT) that possess two types of subsystem symmetries simultaneously (for example, fractal and line-like subsystem symmetries or two different fractal symmetries), and chaotic SPT (CSPT) that have chaos-like symmetries, beyond the classification of fractal or regular subsystems. We propose that each HOCA pattern with a finite initial condition can be represented by a mathematical object $X=(d,M)$, and HOCA rules $\mathbf{f}$ can be categorized into different classes $[\mathbf{f}]$ based on the pattern that the rule can generate. The class of the HOCA rule of a given HGSPT can be identified by what we dub as the multi-point strange correlator, as a generalization of the strange correlator. We have raised a general procedure to construct multi-point strange correlators to detect the nontrivial SPT orders in the gapped ground states of HGSPT models and the their classes.

Andreev bound states in Josephson junctions of semi-Dirac semimetals. (arXiv:2401.00506v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Ipsita Mandal

We consider a Josephson junction built with the two-dimensional semi-Dirac semimetal, which features a hybrid of linear and quadratic dispersion around a nodal point. We model the weak link between the two superconducting regions by a Dirac delta potential because it mimics the thin-barrier limit of a superconductor-barrier-superconductor configuration. Assuming a homogeneous pairing in each region, we set up the BdG formalism for electronlike and holelike quasiparticles propagating along the quadratic-in-momentum dispersion direction. This allows us to compute the discrete bound-state energy spectrum $\varepsilon $ of the subgap Andreev states localized at the junction. In contrast with the Josephson effect investigated for propagation along linearly dispersing directions, we find a pair of doubly degenerate Andreev bound states. Using the dependence of $\varepsilon $ on the superconducting phase difference $\phi$, we compute the variation of Josephson current as a function of $\phi$.

Kagomerization of transition metal monolayers induced by two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride. (arXiv:2401.00516v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Hangyu Zhou, Manuel dos Santos Dias, Youguang Zhang, Weisheng Zhao, Samir Lounis

The kagome lattice is an exciting solid state physics platform for the emergence of nontrivial quantum states driven by electronic correlations: topological effects, unconventional superconductivity, charge and spin density waves, and unusual magnetic states such as quantum spin liquids. While kagome lattices have been realized in complex multi-atomic bulk compounds, here we demonstrate from first-principles a process that we dub kagomerization, in which we fabricate a two-dimensional kagome lattice in monolayers of transition metals utilizing a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) overlayer. Surprisingly, h-BN induces a large rearrangement of the transition metal atoms supported on a fcc(111) heavy-metal surface. This reconstruction is found to be rather generic for this type of heterostructures and has a profound impact on the underlying magnetic properties, ultimately stabilizing various topological magnetic solitons such as skyrmions and bimerons. Our findings call for a reconsideration of h-BN as merely a passive capping layer, showing its potential for not only reconstructing the atomic structure of the underlying material, e.g. through the kagomerization of magnetic films, but also enabling electronic and magnetic phases that are highly sought for the next generation of device technologies.

Probing topological phase transition with non-Hermitian perturbations. (arXiv:2401.00530v1 [quant-ph])
Jingcheng Liang, Chen Fang, Jiangping Hu

We demonstrate that non-Hermitian perturbations can probe topological phase transitions and unambiguously detect non-Abelian zero modes. We show that under carefully designed non-Hermitian perturbations, the Loschmidt echo(LE) decays into 1/N where N is the ground state degeneracy in the topological non-trivial phase, while it approaches 1 in the trivial phase. This distinction is robust against small parameter deviations in the non-Hermitian perturbations. We further study four well-known models that support Majorana or parafermionic zero modes. By calculating their dynamical responses to specific non-Hermitian perturbations, we prove that the steady-state LE can indeed differentiate between different phases. This method avoids the ambiguity introduced by trivial zero-energy states and thus provides an alternative and promising way to demonstrate the emergence of topologically non-trivial phases. The experimental realizations of non-Hermitian perturbations are discussed.

Measurement and analysis of the Doppler broadened energy spectra of annihilation gamma radiation originating from clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces. (arXiv:2401.00581v1 [cond-mat.other])
S. Lotfimarangloo, V. A. Chirayath, P. A. Sterne, H. Mahdy, R. W. Gladen, J. Driscoll, M. Rooks, M. Chrysler, A. R. Koymen, J. Asaadi, A. H. Weiss

We present measurements and theoretical modeling demonstrating the capability of Doppler Broadened annihilation gamma Spectroscopy (DBS) to provide element-specific information from the topmost atomic layer of surfaces that are either clean or covered with adsorbates or thin films. Our measurements show that the energy spectra of Doppler-shifted annihilation gamma photons emitted following the annihilation of positrons from the topmost atomic layers of clean gold (Au) and copper (Cu) differ significantly. With the aid of the positron annihilation-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) performed simultaneously with DBS, we show that measurable differences between the Doppler broadened gamma spectra from Au and Cu surfaces in the high energy region of the gamma spectra can be used for the quantification of surface chemical composition. Modeling the measured Doppler spectra from clean Au and Cu surfaces using gamma spectra obtained from ab initio calculations after considering the detector energy resolution and surface positronium formation pointed to an increase in the relative contribution of gamma from positron annihilation with valence shell electrons. The fit result also suggests that the surface-trapped positrons predominantly annihilated with the delocalized valence shell (s and p) electrons that extended into the vacuum as compared to the highly localized d electrons. Simultaneous DBS and PAES measurements from adsorbate (sulfur, oxygen, carbon) or thin film (selenium (Se), graphene) covered Cu surface showed that it is possible to distinguish and quantify the surface adsorbate and thin-film composition just based on DBS. DBS of elemental surfaces presents a promising avenue for developing a characterization tool that can be used to probe external and internal surfaces that are inaccessible by conventional surface science techniques.

Nonlinear charge transport induced by gate voltage oscillation in few-layer MnBi2Te4. (arXiv:2401.00679v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Liangcai Xu, Zichen Lian, Yongchao Wang, Xinlei Hao, Shuai Yang, Chang Liu, Yang Feng, Yayu Wang, Jinsong Zhang

Nonlinear charge transport, including nonreciprocal longitudinal resistance and nonlinear Hall effect, has garnered significant attention due to its ability to explore inherent symmetries and topological properties of novel materials. An exciting recent progress along this direction is the discovery of significant nonreciprocal longitudinal resistance and nonlinear Hall effect in the intrinsic magnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4 induced by the quantum metric dipole. Given the importance of this finding, the inconsistent response with charge density, and conflicting requirement of C3z symmetry, it is imperative to elucidate every detail that may impact the nonlinear transport measurement. In this study, we reveal an intriguing experimental factor that inevitably gives rise to sizable nonlinear transport signal in MnBi2Te4. We demonstrate that this effect stems from the gate voltage oscillation caused by the application of a large alternating current to the sample. Furthermore, we propose a methodology to significantly suppress this effect by individually grounding the voltage electrodes during the second-harmonic measurements. Our investigation emphasizes the critical importance of thoroughly assessing the impact of gate voltage oscillation before determining the intrinsic nature of nonlinear transport in all 2D material devices with an electrically connected operative gate electrode.

Steering of vortices by magnetic-field tilting in superconductor nanotubes. (arXiv:2401.00712v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])
Igor Bogush, Oleksandr V. Dobrovolskiy, Vladimir M. Fomin

In planar superconductor thin films, the places of nucleation and arrangements of moving vortices are determined by structural defects. However, various applications of superconductors require reconfigurable steering of fluxons, which is hard to realize with geometrically predefined vortex pinning landscapes. Here, on the basis of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, we present an approach for steering of vortex chains and vortex jets in superconductor nanotubes containing a slit. The idea is based on tilting of the magnetic field $\mathbf{B}$ at an angle $\alpha$ in the plane perpendicular to the axis of a nanotube carrying an azimuthal transport current. Namely, while at $\alpha=0^\circ$ vortices move paraxially in opposite directions within each half-tube, an increase of $\alpha$ displaces the areas with the close-to-maximum normal component $|B_\mathrm{n}|$ to the close(opposite)-to-slit regions, giving rise to descending (ascending) branches in the induced-voltage frequency spectrum $f_\mathrm{U}(\alpha)$. At lower $B$, upon reaching the critical angle $\alpha_\mathrm{c}$, close-to-slit vortex chains disappear, yielding $f_\mathrm{U}$ of the $nf_1$-type ($n\geq1$: an integer; $f_1$: vortex nucleation frequency). At higher $B$, $f_\mathrm{U}$ is largely blurry because of multifurcations of vortex trajectories, leading to the coexistence of a vortex jet with two vortex chains at $\alpha=90^\circ$. In addition to prospects for tuning of GHz-frequency spectra and steering of vortices as information bits, our findings lay foundations for on-demand tuning of vortex arrangements in 3D superconductor membranes in tilted magnetic fields.

Calculation of Gilbert damping and magnetic moment of inertia using torque-torque correlation model within ab initio Wannier framework. (arXiv:2401.00714v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])
Robin Bajaj, Seung-Cheol Lee, H. R. Krishnamurthy, Satadeep Bhattacharjee, Manish Jain

Magnetization dynamics in magnetic materials are well described by the modified semiclassical Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, which includes the magnetic damping $\alpha$ and the magnetic moment of inertia $\mathrm{I}$ tensors as key parameters. Both parameters are material-specific and physically represent the time scales of damping of precession and nutation in magnetization dynamics. $\alpha$ and $\mathrm{I}$ can be calculated quantum mechanically within the framework of the torque-torque correlation model. The quantities required for the calculation are torque matrix elements, the real and imaginary parts of the Green's function and its derivatives. Here, we calculate these parameters for the elemental magnets such as Fe, Co and Ni in an ab initio framework using density functional theory and Wannier functions. We also propose a method to calculate the torque matrix elements within the Wannier framework. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by comparing it with the experiments and the previous ab initio and empirical studies and show its potential to improve our understanding of spin dynamics and to facilitate the design of spintronic devices.

"half-electron (e/2)" -- free electron fractional charge induced by twisted light. (arXiv:2401.00723v1 [quant-ph])
Yiming Pan, Ruoyu Yin, Yongcheng Ding, Daniel Podolsky, Bin Zhang

Recent advances in ultrafast electron emission, microscopy, and diffraction reveal our capacity to manipulate free electrons with remarkable quantum coherence using light beams. Here, we present a framework for exploring free electron fractional charge in ultrafast electron-light interactions. An explicit Jackiw-Rebbi solution of free electron is constructed by a spatiotemporally twisted laser field, showcasing a flying topological quantum number with a fractional charge of e/2 (we call it "half-electron"), which is dispersion-free due to its topological nature. We also propose an Aharonov-Bohm interferometry for detecting these half-electrons. The half-electron is a topologically protected bound state in free-space propagation, expands its realm beyond quasiparticles with fractional charges in materials, enabling to advance our understanding of exotic quantum and topological effects of free electron wavefunction.

$Z_3$ and $(\times Z_3)^3$ symmetry protected topological paramagnets. (arXiv:2210.01187v4 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Hrant Topchyan, Vasilii Iugov, Mkhitar Mirumyan, Shahane A. Khachatryan, Tigran S. Hakobyan, Tigran A. Sedrakyan

We identify two-dimensional three-state Potts paramagnets with gapless edge modes on a triangular lattice protected by $(\times Z_3)^3\equiv Z_3\times Z_3\times Z_3$ symmetry and smaller $Z_3$ symmetry. We derive microscopic models for the gapless edge, uncover their symmetries, and analyze the conformal properties. We study the properties of the gapless edge by employing the numerical density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) simulation and exact diagonalization. We discuss the corresponding conformal field theory, its central charge, and the scaling dimension of the corresponding primary field. We argue that the low energy limit of our edge modes is defined by the $SU_k(3)/SU_k(2)$ coset conformal field theory with the level $k=2$. The discussed two-dimensional models realize a variety of symmetry-protected topological phases, opening a window for studies of the unconventional quantum criticalities between them.

Quasiperiodic circuit quantum electrodynamics. (arXiv:2212.12382v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Tobias Herrig, Jedediah H. Pixley, Elio J. König, Roman-Pascal Riwar

Superconducting circuits are an extremely versatile platform to realize quantum information hardware and to emulate topological materials. We here show how a simple arrangement of capacitors and conventional superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions can realize an even broader class of systems, in the form of a nonlinear capacitive element which is quasiperiodic with respect to the quantized Cooper-pair charge. Our setup allows to create protected Dirac points defined in the transport degrees of freedom, whose presence leads to a suppression of the classical finite-frequency current noise. Furthermore, the quasiperiodicity can emulate Anderson localization in charge space, measurable via vanishing charge quantum fluctuations. The realization by means of the macroscopic transport degrees of freedom allows for a straightforward generalization to arbitrary dimensions and implements truly non-interacting versions of the considered models. As an outlook, we discuss potential ideas to simulate a transport version of the magic-angle effect known from twisted bilayer graphene.

Geometric Stiffness in Interlayer Exciton Condensates. (arXiv:2307.01253v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)
Nishchhal Verma, Daniele Guerci, Raquel Queiroz

Recent experiments have confirmed the presence of interlayer excitons in the ground state of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) bilayers. The interlayer excitons are expected to show remarkable transport properties when they undergo Bose condensation. In this work, we demonstrate that quantum geometry of Bloch wavefunctions plays an important role in the phase stiffness of the Interlayer Exciton Condensate (IEC). Notably, we identify a geometric contribution that amplifies the stiffness, leading to the formation of a robust condensate with an increased BKT temperature. Our results have direct implications for the ongoing experimental efforts on interlayer excitons in materials that have non-trivial quantum geometry. We provide quantitative estimates for the geometric contribution in TMD bilayers through a realistic continuum model with gated Coulomb interaction, and find that the substantially increased stiffness allows for an IEC to be realized at amenable experimental conditions.

First-principle study of spin transport property in $L1_0$-FePd(001)/graphene heterojunction. (arXiv:2308.02171v5 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
Hayato Adachi, Ryuusuke Endo, Hikari Shinya, Hiroshi Naganuma, Tomoya Ono, Mitsuharu Uemoto

In our previous work, we synthesized a metal/2D material heterointerface consisting of $L1_0$-ordered iron-palladium (FePd) and graphene (Gr) called FePd(001)/Gr. This system has been explored by both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. In this study, we focus on a heterojunction composed of FePd and multilayer graphene referred to as FePd(001)/$m$-Gr/FePd(001), where $m$ represents the number of graphene layers. We perform first-principles calculations to predict their spin-dependent transport properties. The quantitative calculations of spin-resolved conductance and magnetoresistance (MR) ratio (150-200%) suggest that the proposed structure can function as a magnetic tunnel junction in spintronics applications. We also find that an increase in $m$ not only reduces conductance but also changes transport properties from the tunneling behavior to the graphite $\pi$-band-like behavior. Additionally, we investigate the spin-transfer torque-induced magnetization switching behavior of our \color{blue} junction structures \color{black} using micromagnetic simulations. Furthermore, we examine the impact of lateral displacements (``sliding'') at the interface and find that the spin transport properties remain robust despite these changes; this is the advantage of two-dimensional material hetero-interfaces over traditional insulating barrier layers such as MgO.

Time-reversal symmetry-breaking flux state in an organic Dirac fermion system. (arXiv:2308.11141v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Takao Morinari

We investigate symmetry breaking in the Dirac fermion phase of the organic compound $\alpha$-(BEDT-TTF)$_2$I$_3$ under pressure, where BEDT-TTF denotes bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene. The exchange interaction resulting from inter-molecule Coulomb repulsion leads to broken time-reversal symmetry and particle-hole symmetry while preserving translational symmetry. The system breaks time-reversal symmetry by creating fluxes in the unit cell. This symmetry-broken state exhibits a large Nernst signal as well as thermopower. We compute the Nernst signal and thermopower, demonstrating their consistency with experimental results.

Generalized Kohn-Sham Approach for the Electronic Band Structure of Spin-Orbit Coupled Materials. (arXiv:2309.11158v2 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)
Jacques K. Desmarais, Giacomo Ambrogio, Giovanni Vignale, Alessandro Erba, Stefano Pittalis

Spin-current density functional theory (SCDFT) is a formally exact framework designed to handle the treatment of interacting many-electron systems including spin-orbit coupling at the level of the Pauli equation. In practice, robust and accurate calculations of the electronic structure of these systems call for functional approximations that depend not only on the densities, but also on spin-orbitals. Here we show that the call can be answered by resorting to an extension of the Kohn-Sham formalism, which admits the use of non-local effective potentials, yet it is firmly rooted in SCDFT. The power of the extended formalism is demonstrated by calculating the spin-orbit-induced band-splittings of inversion-asymmetric MoSe$_2$ monolayer and inversion-symmetric bulk $\alpha$-MoTe$_2$. We show that quantitative agreement with experimental data is obtainable via global hybrid approximations by setting the fraction of Fock exchange at the same level which yields accurate values of the band gap. Key to these results is the ability of the method to self-consistently account for the spin currents induced by the spin-orbit interaction. The widely used method of refining spin-density functional theory by a second-variational treatment of spin-orbit coupling is unable to match our SCDFT results.

Aspects of $T\bar{T}+J\bar{T }$ deformed 2D topological gravity : from partition function to late-time SFF. (arXiv:2309.16658v3 [hep-th] UPDATED)
Arpan Bhattacharyya, Saptaswa Ghosh, Sounak Pal

In this paper, we investigate different thermodynamic properties of $T\bar{T}+J\bar{T }$ deformed 2D-gravity. First, we compute the partition function of $U(1)$ coupled 2D-gravity with fixed chemical potential, obtained from the dimensional reduction of the four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory. Then, we compute the partition function of the deformed theory and study the genus expansion of the one and two-point correlation function of the partition function of the theory. Subsequently, we use the one-point function to compute the ``Annealed'' and ``Quenched'' free energy in low-temperature limits and make a qualitative comparison with the undeformed theory. Then, using the two-point function, we compute the Spectral Form Factor of the deformed theory in early and late time. We find a dip and ramp structure in early and late time, respectively. We also get a plateau structure in the $\tau$-scaling limit. Last but not least, we comment on the late-time topology change to give a physical interpretation of the ramp of the Spectral Form Factor for our theory.

Torsion at different scales: from materials to the Universe. (arXiv:2310.13150v3 [gr-qc] UPDATED)
Nick E. Mavromatos, Pablo Pais, Alfredo Iorio

The concept of torsion in geometry, although known for a long time, has not gained considerable attention by the physics community until relatively recently, due to its diverse and potentially important applications to a plethora of contexts of physical interest. These range from novel materials, such as graphene and graphene-like materials, to advanced theoretical ideas, such as string theory and supersymmetry/supergravity and applications thereof in understanding the dark sector of our Universe. This work reviews such applications of torsion at different physical scales.

Gate-controlled neuromorphic functional transition in an electrochemical graphene transistor. (arXiv:2312.04934v2 [] UPDATED)
Chenglin Yu, Shaorui Li, Zhoujie Pan, Yanming Liu, Yongchao Wang, Siyi Zhou, Zhiting Gao, He Tian, Kaili Jiang, Yayu Wang, Jinsong Zhang

Neuromorphic devices have gained significant attention as potential building blocks for the next generation of computing technologies owing to their ability to emulate the functionalities of biological nervous systems. The essential components in artificial neural network such as synapses and neurons are predominantly implemented by dedicated devices with specific functionalities. In this work, we present a gate-controlled transition of neuromorphic functions between artificial neurons and synapses in monolayer graphene transistors that can be employed as memtransistors or synaptic transistors as required. By harnessing the reliability of reversible electrochemical reactions between C atoms and hydrogen ions, the electric conductivity of graphene transistors can be effectively manipulated, resulting in high on/off resistance ratio, well-defined set/reset voltage, and prolonged retention time. Overall, the on-demand switching of neuromorphic functions in a single graphene transistor provides a promising opportunity to develop adaptive neural networks for the upcoming era of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Quasi-phase-matched up- and down-conversion in periodically poled layered semiconductors. (arXiv:2312.05444v2 [physics.optics] UPDATED)
Chiara Trovatello, Carino Ferrante, Birui Yang, Josip Bajo, Benjamin Braun, Xinyi Xu, Zhi Hao Peng, Philipp K. Jenke, Andrew Ye, Milan Delor, D. N. Basov, Jiwoong Park, Philip Walther, Lee A. Rozema, Cory Dean, Andrea Marini, Giulio Cerullo, P. James Schuck

Nonlinear optics lies at the heart of classical and quantum light generation. The invention of periodic poling revolutionized nonlinear optics and its commercial applications by enabling robust quasi-phase-matching in crystals such as lithium niobate. However, reaching useful frequency conversion efficiencies requires macroscopic dimensions, limiting further technology development and integration. Here we realize a periodically poled van der Waals semiconductor (3R-MoS$_2$). Due to its exceptional nonlinearity, we achieve macroscopic frequency conversion efficiency over a microscopic thickness of only 1.2${\mu}$m, $10-100\times$ thinner than current systems with similar performances. Due to unique intrinsic cavity effects, the thickness-dependent quasi-phase-matched second harmonic signal surpasses the usual quadratic enhancement by $50\%$. Further, we report the broadband generation of photon pairs at telecom wavelengths via quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion. This work opens the new and unexplored field of phase-matched nonlinear optics with microscopic van der Waals crystals, unlocking applications that require simple, ultra-compact technologies such as on-chip entangled photon-pair sources for integrated quantum circuitry and sensing.

Localization of overdamped bosonic modes and transport in strange metals. (arXiv:2312.06751v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)
Aavishkar A. Patel, Peter Lunts, Subir Sachdev

A recent theory described strange metal behavior in a model of a Fermi surface coupled a two-dimensional quantum critical bosonic scalar field with a spatially random Yukawa coupling. With the assumption of self-averaging randomness, similar to that in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, numerous observed properties of a strange metal were obtained for wide range of intermediate temperatures, including the linear-in-temperature resistivity. The Harris criterion implies that spatial fluctuations in the local position of the critical point must dominate at low temperatures, and these were not fully accounted for in the recent theory. We use multiple graphics processing units to compute the real frequency spectrum of the boson propagator in a self-consistent mean-field treatment of the boson self-interactions, but an exact treatment of multiple realizations of the spatial randomness from the random boson mass. We find that Landau damping from the fermions leads to behavior consistent with the emergence of the physics of the random transverse-field Ising model, as has been proposed by Hoyos, Kotabage, and Vojta. This emergent low temperature regime, controlled by localized overdamped eigenmodes of the bosonic scalar field, also has a resistivity which is nearly linear-in-temperature, and extends into a `quantum critical phase' away from the quantum critical point, as observed in several cuprates.

Anomalous optical saturation of low-energy Dirac states in graphene and its implication for nonlinear optics. (arXiv:1806.10123v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] CROSS LISTED)
Behrooz Semnani, Roland Jago, Safieddin Safavi-Naeini, Amir Hamed Majedi, Ermin Malic, Philippe Tassin

We reveal that optical saturation of the low-energy states takes place in graphene for arbitrarily weak electromagnetic fields. This effect originates from the diverging field-induced interband coupling at the Dirac point. Using semiconductor Bloch equations to model the electronic dynamics of graphene, we argue that the charge carriers undergo ultrafast Rabi oscillations leading to the anomalous saturation effect. The theory is complemented by a many-body study of the carrier relaxations dynamics in graphene. It will be demonstrated that the carrier relaxation dynamics is slow around the Dirac point, which in turn leads to a more pronounced saturation. The implications of this effect to the nonlinear optics of graphene is then discussed. Our analysis show that the conventional perturbative treatment of the nonlinear optics, i.e., expanding the polarization field in a Taylor series of the electric field, is problematic for graphene, in particular at small Fermi levels and large field amplitudes.

Found 2 papers in comm-phys

Search terms: (topolog[a-z]+)|(graphit[a-z]+)|(rhombohedr[a-z]+)|(graphe[a-z]+)|(chalcog[a-z]+)|(landau)|(weyl)|(dirac)|(STM)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ spectr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ prob[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(MoS.+\d+|MoS\d+)|(MoSe.+\d+|MoSe\d+)|(MoTe.+\d+|MoTe\d+)|(WS.+\d+|WS\d+)|(WSe.+\d+|WSe\d+)|(WTe.+\d+|WTe\d+)|(Bi\d+Rh\d+I\d+|Bi.+\d+.+Rh.+\d+.+I.+\d+.+)|(BiTeI)|(BiTeBr)|(BiTeCl)|(ZrTe5|ZrTe.+5)|(Pt2HgSe3|Pt.+2HgSe.+3)|(jacuting[a-z]+)|(flatband)|(flat.{1}band)|(LK.{1}99)

Synthesizing 2h/e2 resistance plateau at the first Landau level confined in a quantum point contact
Yoshiro Hirayama

Communications Physics, Published online: 20 December 2023; doi:10.1038/s42005-023-01491-8

In the quantum Hall regime, electrical current flows along the edges in a chiral fashion and they determine the Hall resistance plateaus. This work reports on experiments on fractional and integer quantum Hall edge channel mixing in a quantum point contact, which lead to unexpectedly anomalous resistance plateaus, shedding light onto the edge reconstruction and equilibration processes.

Efficiency limit of transition metal dichalcogenide solar cells
Eric Pop

Communications Physics, Published online: 20 December 2023; doi:10.1038/s42005-023-01447-y

Transition metal dichalcogenide-based photovoltaics offer the prospect of increased specific power compared to incumbent solar technologies but there are engineering challenges that come with integrating these materials into high-efficiency devices. Here, the authors develop a model to describe the relationship between material quality and the performance limits of single junction solar cells built with various transition metal dichalcogenides.