Found 30 papers in cond-mat **Search terms: **(topolog[a-z]+)|(graphit[a-z]+)|(rhombohedr[a-z]+)|(graphe[a-z]+)|(chalcog[a-z]+)|(landau)|(weyl)|(dirac)|(STM)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ spectr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ prob[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(MoS.+\d+|MoS\d+)|(MoSe.+\d+|MoSe\d+)|(MoTe.+\d+|MoTe\d+)|(WS.+\d+|WS\d+)|(WSe.+\d+|WSe\d+)|(WTe.+\d+|WTe\d+)|(Bi\d+Rh\d+I\d+|Bi.+\d+.+Rh.+\d+.+I.+\d+.+)|(BiTeI)|(BiTeBr)|(BiTeCl)|(ZrTe5|ZrTe.+5)|(Pt2HgSe3|Pt.+2HgSe.+3)|(jacuting[a-z]+)|(flatband)|(flat.{1}band)|(LK.{1}99) **A Small Step for Epitaxy, a Large Step Towards Twist Angle Control in 2D Heterostructures**

Oliver Ma{\ss}meyer
J\"urgen Belz
Badrosadat Ojaghi Dogahe
Maximilian Widemann
Robin G\"unkel
Johannes Glowatzki
Max Bergmann
Sergej Pasko
Simonas Krotkus
Michael Heuken
Andreas Beyer
Kerstin Volz

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have received a lot of interest over the past decade. Especially van der Waals (vdW) 2D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), and their heterostructures exhibit semiconducting properties that make them highly suitable for novel device applications. Controllable mixing and matching of the 2D materials with different properties and a precise control of the in-plane twist angle in these heterostructures are essential to achieve superior properties and need to be established through large-scale device fabrication. To gain fundamental insight into the control of these twist angles, 2D heterostructures of tungsten disulfide (WS2) and graphene grown by bottom-up synthesis via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are investigated using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Specifically, the combination of conventional high-resolution imaging with scanning nano beam diffraction (SNBD) using advanced 4D STEM techniques is used to analyze moir\'e structures. The latter technique is used to reveal the epitaxial alignment within the WS2/Gr heterostructure, showing a direct influence of the underlying graphene layers on the moir\'e formation in the subsequent WS2 layers. In particular, the importance of grain boundaries within the underlying WS2 and Gr layers for the formation of moir\'e patterns with rotation angles below 2{\deg} is discussed.

**Orbital optical activity in noncentrosymmetric metals and superconductors**

Koki Shinada
Robert Peters

We present the optical activity induced by the orbital magnetic moment in metals and superconductors using Green's function formalization. We show that an apparent singularity of the optical activity vanishes in the normal state; however, it remains finite in the superconducting state and is related to the superconducting Edelstein effect, ensuring the missing area measurement. Finally, we calculate the optical activity in a model Hamiltonian mimicking doped transition metal dichalcogenides to investigate its characteristic spectrum, and we analyze the Kerr effect to discuss a possibility to observe the optical activity in experiments.

**Distinct pressure evolution of superconductivity and charge-density-wave in kagome superconductor CsV$_3$Sb$_5$ thin flakes**

Ge Ye
Mengwei Xie
Chufan Chen
Yanan Zhang
Dongting Zhang
Xin Ma
Xiangyu Zeng
Fanghang Yu
Yi Liu
Xiaozhi Wang
Guanghan Cao
Xiaofeng Xu
Xianhui Chen
Huiqiu Yuan
Chao Cao
Xin Lu

It is intriguing to explore the coexistence and (or) competition between charge-density-wave (CDW) and superconductivity (SC) in many correlated electron systems, such as cuprates, organic superconductors and dichacolgenides. Among them, the recently discovered $\mathbb{Z} _2$ topological kagome metals AV$_3$Sb$_5$ (A=K, Rb, Cs) serve as an ideal platform to study the intricate relation between them. Here, we report the electrical resistance measurements on CsV$_3$Sb$_5$ thin flakes ($\approx$ 60 nm) under hydrostatic pressure up to 2.12 GPa to compare its pressure phase diagram of CDW and SC with its bulk form. Even though the CDW transition temperature (T$_{CDW}$) in CsV$_3$Sb$_5$ thin flakes is still monotonically suppressed under pressure and totally vanishes at P$_2$=1.83 GPa similar to the bulk, the superconducting transition temperature (T$_c$) shows an initial decrease and consequent increase up to its maximum $\sim$ 8.03 K at P$_2$, in sharp contrast with the M-shaped double domes in the bulk CsV$_3$Sb$_5$. Our results suggest the important role of reduced dimensionality on the CDW state and its interplay with the SC, offering a new perspective to explore the exotic nature of CsV$_3$Sb$_5$.

**Quasi van der Waals Epitaxial Growth of GaAsSb Nanowires on Graphitic Substrate for Photonic Applications**

Dingding Ren
Tron A. Nilsen
Julie S. Nilsen
Lyubomir Ahtapodov
Anjan Mukherjee
Yang Li
Antonius T. J. van Helvoort
Helge Weman
Bj{\o}rn-Ove Fimland

III-V semiconductor nanowires are considered promising building blocks for advanced photonic devices. One of the key advantages is that the lattice mismatch can easily be accommodated in 1D structures, resulting in superior heteroepitaxial quality compared to thin films. However, few reports break the limitation of using bulk crystalline materials as substrates for epitaxial growth of high-quality photonic 1D components, making monolithic integration of III-V components on arbitrary substrates challenging. In this work, we show that the growth of self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowires on graphitic substrates can be promoted by creating step edges of monolayer thickness on kish graphite before the growth. By further alternating the deposition sequence of the group-III element Al and the group-V elements As and Sb, it was found that triangular crystallites form when Al is deposited first. This indicates that the surface binding energy between the graphitic surface and the III-V nucleus profoundly influences the epitaxial growth of III-V materials on graphitic surfaces. Using the optimized growth recipe with an AlAsSb buffer nuclei, vertical [111]-oriented GaAsSb/GaAs nanowires with GaAsSb-based multiple axial superlattices were grown on exfoliated graphite, which was attached to a (001) AlAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) using the simple Scotch tape method. Fabry-P\'{e}rot resonance modes were observed under optical excitation at room temperature, indicating a successful monolithic integration with optical feedback from the DBR system. These results demonstrate the great potential for flexible integration of high-efficiency III-V nanowire photonic devices on arbitrary photonic platforms using a 2D material buffer layer, e.g., graphene, without breaking the orientation registry.

**Rational Design of Molybdenum Transition-Metal subnanoclusters catalysts with Particle Swarm Optimization**

Yao Wei
Alejandro Santana-Bonilla
Lev Kantorovich

The development of novel sub-nanometer clusters (SNCs) catalysts with superior catalytic performance depends on the precise control of clusters' atomistic sizes, shapes, and accurate deposition onto surfaces. Recent advancements in manufacturing and characterization techniques have paved the way for the production and atomic resolution characterization of transition-metal SNCs catalysts, positioning them as a promising new class of materials for this application. Nevertheless, the intrinsic complexity of the adsorption process complicates the ability to achieve an atomistic understanding of the most relevant structure-reactivity relationships hampering the rational design of novel catalytic materials. In most cases, existing computational approaches rely on just a few structures to conclude clusters' reactivity thereby neglecting the complexity of the existing energy landscapes thus leading to insufficient sampling and, most likely, unreliable predictions. Moreover, modelling of the actual experimental procedure that is responsible for the deposition of SNCs on surfaces is often not done even though in some cases this procedure may enhance the significance of certain (e.g., metastable) adsorption geometries. This study proposes a novel approach that utilizes particle swarm optimization (PSO) method, in conjunction with ab-initio calculations, to predict the most relevant SNCs structures on a surface in beam experiments, and consequently their reactivity. To illustrate the main steps of our approach, we consider the deposition of Molybdenum SNC of 6 Mo atoms on a free-standing graphene surface, as well as their catalytic properties concerning the CO molecule dissociation reaction. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the PSO technique for studying catalyst transition-metal SNCs and establishes a reliable procedure for performing theoretical rational design predictions.

**Disorder-Induced Topological Transitions in a Multilayer Topological Insulator**

Z. Z. Alisultanov
A. Kudlis

We examine the impact of non-magnetic disorder on the electronic states of a multilayer structure comprising layers of both topological and conventional band insulators. Employing the Burkov-Balents model with renormalized tunneling parameters, we generate phase diagrams correlating with disorder, demonstrating that non-magnetic disorder can induce transitions between distinct topological phases. The subsequent section of our investigation focuses on the scenario where disorder is unevenly distributed across layers, resulting in fluctuations of the interlayer tunneling parameter -- termed off-diagonal disorder. Furthermore, we determine the density of states employing the self-consistent single-site diagram technique, expanding the Green function in relation to the interlayer tunneling parameter (locator method). Our findings reveal that off-diagonal disorder engenders delocalized bulk states within the band gap. The emergence of these states may lead to the breakdown of the anomalous quantum Hall effect (AQHE) phase, a phenomenon that has garnered significant attention from researchers in the realm of topological heterostructures. Nonetheless, our results affirm the stability of the Weyl semimetal phase even under substantial off-diagonal disorder.

**Ubiquitous order-disorder transition in the Mn antisite sublattice of the (MnBi$_2$Te$_4$)(Bi$_2$Te$_3$)$_n$ magnetic topological insulators**

M. Sahoo
I. J. Onuorah
L. C. Folkers
E. V. Chulkov
M. M. Otrokov
Z. S. Aliev
I. R. Amiraslanov
A. U. B. Wolter
B. B\"uchner
L. T. Corredor
Ch. Wang
Z. Salman
A. Isaeva
R. De Renzi
G. Allodi

Magnetic topological insulators (TIs) herald a wealth of applications in spin-based technologies, relying on the novel quantum phenomena provided by their topological properties. Particularly promising is the (MnBi$_2$Te$_4$)(Bi$_2$Te$_3$)$_n$ layered family of established intrinsic magnetic TIs that can flexibly realize various magnetic orders and topological states. High tunability of this material platform is enabled by manganese-pnictogen intermixing, whose amounts and distribution patterns are controlled by synthetic conditions. Positive implication of the strong intermixing in MnSb$_2$Te$_4$ is the interlayer exchange coupling switching from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic, and the increasing magnetic critical temperature. On the other side, intermixing also implies atomic disorder which may be detrimental for applications. Here, we employ nuclear magnetic resonance and muon spin spectroscopy, sensitive local probe techniques, to scrutinize the impact of the intermixing on the magnetic properties of (MnBi$_2$Te$_4$)(Bi$_2$Te$_3$)$_n$ and MnSb$_2$Te$_4$. Our measurements not only confirm the opposite alignment between the Mn magnetic moments on native sites and antisites in the ground state of MnSb$_2$Te$_4$, but for the first time directly show the same alignment in (MnBi$_2$Te$_4$)(Bi$_2$Te$_3$)$_n$ with n = 0, 1 and 2. Moreover, for all compounds, we find the static magnetic moment of the Mn antisite sublattice to disappear well below the intrinsic magnetic transition temperature, leaving a homogeneous magnetic structure undisturbed by the intermixing. Our findings provide a microscopic understanding of the crucial role played by Mn-Bi intermixing in (MnBi$_2$Te$_4$)(Bi$_2$Te$_3$)$_n$ and offer pathways to optimizing the magnetic gap in its surface states.

**Quantum thermodynamics with a single superconducting vortex**

Marek Foltyn
Konrad Norowski
Alexander Savin
Maciej Zgirski

We demonstrate complete control over dynamics of a single superconducting vortex in a nanostructure which we coin the Single Vortex Box (SVB). Our device allows us to trap the vortex in a field-cooled aluminum nanosquare and expel it on demand with a nanosecond pulse of electrical current. We read-out the vortex state of the box by testing the switching current of the adjacent Dayem nanobridge. Using the time-resolving nanothermometry we measure 4$\cdot$10$^{-19}\,$J as the amount of the dissipated heat (which is the energy of a single red photon) in the elementary process of the vortex expulsion, and monitor the following thermal relaxation of the device. The measured heat is equal to the energy required to annihilate all Cooper pairs on the way of the moving vortex. Our design and measuring protocol are convenient for studying the stochastic mechanism of the vortex escape from current-driven superconducting nanowires, which has its roots either in thermal or quantum fluctuations, similar to ones widely studied in Josephson junctions or magnetic nanoclusters and molecules. Our experiment enlightens the thermodynamics of the absorption process in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, in which vortices are perceived to be essential for a formation of a detectable hot spot. The demonstrated opportunity to manipulate a single superconducting vortex reliably in a confined geometry comprises in fact a proof-of-concept of a nanoscale non-volatile memory cell with sub-nanosecond write and read operations, which offers compatibility with quantum processors based either on superconducting qubits or rapid single flux quantum circuits.

**Emergent Fano-Feshbach resonance in two-band superconductors with an incipient quasi-flat band: Enhanced critical temperature evading particle-hole fluctuations**

Hiroyuki Tajima
Hideo Aoki
Andrea Perali
Antonio Bianconi

In superconductivity, a surge of interests in enhancing $T_{\rm c}$ is ever mounting, where a recent focus is toward multi-band superconductivity. In $T_{\rm c}$ enhancements specific to two-band cases, especially around the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover considered here, we have to be careful about how quantum fluctuations affect the many-body states, i.e., particle-hole fluctuations suppressing the pairing for attractive interactions. Here we explore how to circumvent the suppression by examining multichannel pairing interactions in two-band systems. With the Gor'kov-Melik-Barkhudarov (GMB) formalism for particle-hole fluctuations in a continuous space, we look into the case of a deep dispersive band accompanied by an incipient heavy-mass (i.e., quasi-flat) band. We find that, while the GMB corrections usually suppress $T_{\rm c}$ significantly, this in fact competes with the enhanced pairing arising from the heavy band, with the trade-off leading to a peaked structure in $T_{\rm c}$ against the band-mass ratio when the heavy band is incipient. The system then plunges into a strong-coupling regime with the GMB screening vastly suppressed. This occurs prominently when the chemical potential approaches the bound state lurking just below the heavy band, which can be viewed as a Fano-Feshbach resonance, with its width governed by the pair-exchange interaction. The diagrammatic structure comprising particle-particle and particle-hole channels is heavily entangled, so that the emergent Fano-Feshbach resonance dominates all the channels, suggesting a universal feature in multiband superconductivity.

**Flexible, photonic films of surfactant-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals for pressure and humidity sensing**

Diogo V. Saraiva
Steven N. Remi\"ens
Ethan I. L. Jull
Ivo R. Vermaire
Lisa Tran

Most paints contain pigments that absorb light and fade over time. A robust alternative can be found in nature, where structural coloration arises from the interference of light with submicron features. Plant-derived, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) mimic these features by self-assembling into a cholesteric liquid crystal that exhibits structural coloration when dried. While much research has been done on CNCs in aqueous solutions, less is known about transferring CNCs to apolar solvents that are widely employed in paints. This study uses a common surfactant in agricultural and industrial products to suspend CNCs in toluene that are then dried into structurally colored films. Surprisingly, a stable liquid crystal phase is formed within hours, even with concentrations of up to 50 wt.-%. Evaporating the apolar CNC suspensions results in photonic films with peak wavelengths ranging from 660 to 920 nm. The resulting flexible films show increased mechanical strength, enabling a blue-shift into the visible spectrum with applied force. The films also act as humidity sensors, with increasing relative humidity yielding a red-shift. With the addition of a single surfactant, CNCs can be made compatible with existing production methods of industrial coatings, while improving the strength and responsiveness of structurally-colored films to external stimuli.

**Anomalous thermal relaxation and pump-probe spectroscopy of 2D topologically ordered systems**

Max McGinley
Michele Fava
S. A. Parameswaran

We study the behaviour of linear and nonlinear spectroscopic quantities in two-dimensional topologically ordered systems, which host anyonic excitations exhibiting fractional statistics. We highlight the role that braiding phases between anyons have on the dynamics of such quasiparticles, which as we show dictates the behaviour of both linear response coefficients at finite temperatures, as well as nonlinear pump-probe response coefficients. These quantities, which act as probes of temporal correlations in the system, are shown to obey distinctive universal forms at sufficiently long timescales. As well as providing an experimentally measurable fingerprint of anyonic statistics, the universal behaviour that we find also demonstrates anomalously fast thermal relaxation: correlation functions decay as a `squished exponential' $C(t) \sim \exp(-[t/\tau]^{3/2})$ at long times. We attribute this unusual asymptotic form to the nonlocal nature of interactions between anyons, which allows relaxation to occur much faster than in systems with quasiparticles interacting via local, non-statistical interactions. While our results apply to any Abelian or non-Abelian topological phase in two-dimensions, we discuss in particular the implications for candidate quantum spin liquid materials, wherein the relevant quantities can be measured using pre-existing time-resolved terahertz-domain spectroscopic techniques.

**On the influence of annealing on the compositional and crystallographic properties of sputtered Li-Al-O thin films**

Florian Lourens
Detlef Rogalla
Ellen Suhr
Alfred Ludwig

A Li-Al-O thin film materials library, deposited by inert magnetron sputtering and post-deposition annealing in O2 atmosphere, was used to study the effects of different annealing temperatures (300 to 850{\deg}C) and durations (1 min to 7 h) on crystallinity and composition of the films. XPS depth profiling revealed inhomogeneous compositional depth profiles with Li contents increased toward the film surface and Al contents toward the film-substrate interface. These depth profiles were confirmed by a combination of RBS and D-NRA. At annealing temperatures of 550{\deg}C and higher, Li reacted with the Si substrate. At the same time, temperatures of 550{\deg}C and higher enabled the formation of crystalline LiAlO2, whereas at lower temperatures, no crystalline Li-Al-O phases were detected with XRD. In contrast to conventional annealing in a tube furnace (3 to 7 h durations), rapid thermal annealing with fast heating/cooling rates of 10{\deg}C/min and durations of 1 to 10 min resulted in homogeneous depth profiles, while also leading to crystalline LiAlO2.

**Linear and Non-Linear Response of Quadratic Lindbladians**

Spenser Talkington
Martin Claassen

Quadratic Lindbladians encompass a rich class of dissipative electronic and bosonic quantum systems, which have been predicted to host new and exotic physics. In this study, we develop a Lindblad-Keldysh spectroscopic response formalism for open quantum systems that elucidates their steady-state response properties and dissipative phase transitions via finite-frequency linear and non-linear probes. As illustrative examples, we utilize this formalism to calculate the (1) density and dynamic spin susceptibilities of a boundary driven XY model at and near criticality, (2) linear and non-linear optical responses in Bernal bilayer graphene coupled to dissipative leads, and (3) steady state susceptibilities in a bosonic optical lattice. We find that the XY model spin density wavelength diverges with critical exponent 1/2, and there are gapless dispersive modes in the dynamic spin response and the coupling to these modes decreases as the spin density wavelength increases. In the optical response of the Bernal bilayer, we find that the diamagnetic response can decrease with increasing occupation, as opposed to in closed systems where the response increases monotonically with occupation; we study the effect of second harmonic generation and shift current and find that these responses, forbidden in centrosymmetric closed systems, can manifest in these open systems as a result of dissipation. We compare this formalism to its equilibrium counterpart and draw analogies between these non-interacting open systems and strongly interacting closed systems.

**Observing quantum many-body scars in random quantum circuits**

B\'arbara Andrade
Utso Bhattacharya
Ravindra W. Chhajlany
Tobias Gra{\ss}
Maciej Lewenstein

The Schwinger model describes quantum electrodynamics in 1+1-dimensions, it is a prototype for quantum chromodynamics, and its lattice version allows for a quantum link model description that can be simulated using modern quantum devices. In this work, we devise quantum simulations to investigate the dynamics of this model in its low dimensional form, where the gauge field degrees of freedom are described by spin 1/2 operators. We apply trotterization to write quantum circuits that effectively generate the evolution under the Schwinger model Hamiltonian. We consider both sequential circuits, with a fixed gate sequence, and randomized ones. Utilizing the correspondence between the Schwinger model and the PXP model, known for its quantum scars, we investigate the presence of quantum scar states in the Schwinger model by identifying states exhibiting extended thermalization times in our circuit evolutions. Our comparison of sequential and randomized circuit dynamics shows that the non-thermal sector of the Hilbert space, including the scars, are more sensitive to randomization, a feature which can be detected even on relatively short time scales.

**Spatial calibration of high-density absorption imaging**

Toke Vibel
Mikkel Berg Christensen
Mick Althoff Kristensen
Jeppe Juhl Thuesen
Laurits Nikolaj Stokholm
Carrie Ann Weidner
Jan Joachim Arlt

The accurate determination of atom numbers is an ubiquitous problem in the field of ultracold atoms. For modest atom numbers, absolute calibration techniques are available, however, for large numbers and high densities, the available techniques neglect many-body scattering processes. Here, a spatial calibration technique for time-of-flight absorption images of ultracold atomic clouds is presented. The calibration is obtained from radially averaged absorption images and we provide a practical guide to the calibration process. It is shown that the calibration coefficient scales linearly with optical density and depends on the absorbed photon number for the experimental conditions explored here. This allows for the direct inclusion of a spatially dependent calibration in the image analysis. For typical ultracold atom clouds the spatial calibration technique leads to corrections in the detected atom number up to $\approx\! 12\,\%$ and temperature up to $\approx \!14\,\%$ in comparison to previous calibration techniques. The technique presented here addresses a major difficulty in absorption imaging of ultracold atomic clouds and prompts further theoretical work to understand the scattering processes in ultracold dense clouds of atoms for accurate atom number calibration.

**Relative frequencies of constrained events in stochastic processes: An analytical approach**

S. Rusconi
E. Akhmatskaya
D. Sokolovski
N. Ballard
J. C. de la Cal

The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) method are among the most common approaches for studying stochastic processes. They rely on knowledge of interevent probability density functions (PDFs) and on information about dependencies between all possible events. Analytical representations of a PDF are difficult to specify in advance, in many real life applications. Knowing the shapes of PDFs, and using experimental data, different optimization schemes can be applied in order to evaluate probability density functions and, therefore, the properties of the studied system. Such methods, however, are computationally demanding, and often not feasible. We show that, in the case where experimentally accessed properties are directly related to the frequencies of events involved, it may be possible to replace the heavy Monte Carlo core of optimization schemes with an analytical solution. Such a replacement not only provides a more accurate estimation of the properties of the process, but also reduces the simulation time by a factor of order of the sample size (at least $\approx 10^4$). The proposed analytical approach is valid for any choice of PDF. The accuracy, computational efficiency, and advantages of the method over MC procedures are demonstrated in the exactly solvable case and in the evaluation of branching fractions in controlled radical polymerization (CRP) of acrylic monomers. This polymerization can be modeled by a constrained stochastic process. Constrained systems are quite common, and this makes the method useful for various applications.

**Mitigating topological freezing using out-of-equilibrium simulations**

Claudio Bonanno
Alessandro Nada
Davide Vadacchino

Motivated by the recently-established connection between Jarzynski's equality and the theoretical framework of Stochastic Normalizing Flows, we investigate a protocol relying on out-of-equilibrium lattice Monte Carlo simulations to mitigate the infamous computational problem of topological freezing. We test our proposal on $2d$ $\mathrm{CP}^{N-1}$ models and compare our results with those obtained adopting the Parallel Tempering on Boundary Conditions proposed by M. Hasenbusch, obtaining comparable performances. Our work thus sets the stage for future applications combining our Monte Carlo setup with machine learning techniques.

**Anomalous Hall Effects in Chiral Superconductors**

Vudtiwat Ngampruetikorn
J. A. Sauls

We report theoretical results for the electronic contribution to thermal and electrical transport for chiral superconductors belonging to even or odd-parity E$_1$ and E$_2$ representations of the tetragonal and hexagonal point groups. Chiral superconductors exhibit novel properties that depend on the topology of the order parameter and Fermi surface, and -- as we highlight -- the structure of the impurity potential. An anomalous thermal Hall effect is predicted and shown to be sensitive to the winding number, $\nu$, of the chiral order parameter via Andreev scattering that transfers angular momentum from the chiral condensate to excitations that scatter off the random potential. For heat transport in a chiral superconductor with isotropic impurity scattering, i.e., point-like impurities, a transverse heat current is obtained for $\nu=\pm 1$, but vanishes for $|\nu|>1$. This is not a universal result. For finite-size impurities with radii of order or greater than the Fermi wavelength, $R\ge\hbar/p_f$, the thermal Hall conductivity is finite for chiral order with $|\nu|\ge2$, and determined by a specific Fermi-surface average of the differential cross-section for electron-impurity scattering. Our results also provide quantitative formulae for analyzing and interpreting thermal transport measurements for superconductors predicted to exhibit broken time-reversal and mirror symmetries.

**Two-dimensional lattice with an imaginary magnetic field**

Tomoki Ozawa
Tomoya Hayata

We introduce a two-dimensional non-Hermitian lattice model with an imaginary magnetic field and elucidate various unique features which are absent in Hermitian lattice models with real magnetic fields. To describe the imaginary magnetic field, we consider both the Landau gauge and the symmetric gauge, which are related by a generalized gauge transformation, changing not only the phase but also the amplitude of the wave function. We discuss the complex energy spectrum and the non-Hermitian Aharonov-Bohm effect as examples of properties which are due to the imaginary magnetic field independent of the generalized gauge transformation. We show that the energy spectrum does not converge as the lattice size is made larger, which comes from the intrinsic nonperiodicity of the model. However, we have found that the energy spectrum does converge if one fixes the length of one side and makes the other side longer; this asymptotic behavior can be understood in the framework of the non-Bloch band theory. We also find an analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect; the net change of the norm of the wave function upon adiabatically forming a closed path is determined by the imaginary magnetic flux enclosed by the path, which provides an experimentally observable feature of the imaginary magnetic field.

**Kitaev ring threaded by a magnetic flux: Topological gap, Anderson localization of quasiparticles, and divergence of supercurrent derivative**

Martina Minutillo
Procolo Lucignano
Gabriele Campagnano
Angelo Russomanno

We study a superconducting Kitaev ring pierced by a magnetic flux, with and without disorder, in a quantum ring configuration, and in a rf-SQUID one, where a weak link is present. In the rf-SQUID configuration, in the topological phase, the supercurrent shows jumps at specific values of the flux $\Phi^*=\frac{hc}{e}(1/4+n)$, with $n\in\mathbb{N}$. In the thermodynamic limit $\Phi^*$ is constant inside the topological phase, independently of disorder, and we analytically predict this fact using a perturbative approach in the weak-link coupling. The weak link breaks the topological ground-state degeneracy, and opens a spectral gap for $\Phi\neq \Phi^*$, that vanishes at $\Phi^*$ with a cusp providing the current jump. Looking at the quasiparticle excitations, we see that they are Anderson localized, so they cannot carry a resistive contribution to the current, and the localization length shows a peculiar behavior at a flat-band point for the quasiparticles. In the absence of disorder, we analytically and numerically find that the chemical-potential derivative of the supercurrent logarithmically diverges at the topological-to-trivial transition, in agreement with the transition being of the second order.

**Proximity effect of s-wave superconductor on inversion broken Weyl Semi-Metal**

Robert Dawson
Vivek Aji

Inducing superconductivity in systems with unconventional band structures is a promising approach for realising unconventional superconductivity. Of particular interest are single interface or Josephson Junction architectures involving Weyl semimetals, which are predicted to host odd parity, potentially topological, superconducting states. These expectations rely crucially on the tunneling of electronic states at the interface between the two systems. In this study, we revisit the question of induced superconductivity in an inversion broken WSM via quantum tunneling, treating the interface as an effective potential barrier. We determine the conditions under which the gap function couples to the Weyl physics and its properties within the WSM. Our simulations show that the mismatch in the nature of the low energy electronic states leads to a rapid decay of the superconductivity within the semi-metal.

**An Effective Theory for Graphene Nanoribbons with Junctions**

Johann Ostmeyer
Lado Razmadze
Evan Berkowitz
Thomas Luu
Ulf-G. Mei{\ss}ner

Graphene nanoribbons are a promising candidate for fault-tolerant quantum electronics. In this scenario, qubits are realised by localised states that can emerge on junctions in hybrid ribbons formed by two armchair nanoribbons of different widths. We derive an effective theory based on a tight-binding ansatz for the description of hybrid nanoribbons and use it to make accurate predictions of the energy gap and nature of the localisation in various hybrid nanoribbon geometries. We use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that the effective theory remains applicable in the presence of Hubbard interactions. We discover, in addition to the well known localisations on junctions, which we call `Fuji', a new type of `Kilimanjaro' localisation smeared out over a segment of the hybrid ribbon. We show that Fuji localisations in hybrids of width $N$ and $N+2$ armchair nanoribbons occur around symmetric junctions if and only if $N\pmod3=1$, while edge-aligned junctions never support strong localisation. This behaviour cannot be explained relying purely on the topological $Z_2$ invariant, which has been believed the origin of the localisations to date.

**Giant piezoelectric effects of topological structures in stretched ferroelectric membranes**

Yihao Hu
Jiyuan Yang
Shi Liu

Freestanding ferroelectric oxide membranes emerge as a promising platform for exploring the interplay between topological polar ordering and dipolar interactions that are continuously tunable by strain. Our investigations combining density functional theory (DFT) and deep-learning-assisted molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that DFT-predicted strain-driven morphotropic phase boundary involving monoclinic phases manifest as diverse domain structures at room temperatures, featuring continuous distributions of dipole orientations and mobile domain walls. Detailed analysis of dynamic structures reveals that the enhanced piezoelectric response observed in stretched PbTiO$_3$ membranes results from small-angle rotations of dipoles at domain walls, distinct from conventional polarization rotation mechanism and adaptive phase theory inferred from static structures. We identify a ferroelectric topological structure, termed "dipole spiral," which exhibits a giant intrinsic piezoelectric response ($>$320 pC/N). This helical structure, primarily stabilized by entropy and possessing a rotational zero-energy mode, unlocks new possibilities for exploring chiral phonon dynamics and dipolar Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya-like interactions.

**Soft spots of net negative topological charge directly cause the plasticity of 3D glasses**

Arabinda Bera
Matteo Baggioli
Timothy C. Petersen
Amelia C. Y. Liu
Alessio Zaccone

The deformation mechanism in amorphous solids subjected to external shear remains poorly understood because of the absence of well-defined topological defects mediating the plastic deformation. The notion of soft spots has emerged as a useful tool to characterize the onset of irreversible rearrangements and plastic flow, but these entities are not well-defined in terms of geometry and topology. In this study, we unveil the phenomenology of recently discovered, well-defined topological defects governing the microscopic mechanical and yielding behavior of a model 3D glass under shear deformation. We identify the existence of vortex-like and anti-vortex-like topological defects within the 3D non-affine displacement field. The number density of these defects exhibits a significant (inverse) correlation with the plastic events, with defect proliferation-annihilation cycles matching the alternation of elastic-like segments and catastrophic plastic drops, respectively. Furthermore, we observe collective annihilation of these point-like defects via plastic events, with large local topological charge fluctuations in the vicinity of regions that feature strong non-affine displacements. We unveil that plastic yielding is driven by very few, but very large, clusters of net negative topological charge, the massive annihilation of which triggers the onset of plastic flow. These findings suggest a geometric and topological characterization of soft spots and pave the way for the mechanistic understanding of topological defects as mediators of plastic deformation in glassy materials.

**An Economical and Efficient Helium Recovery System for Vibration-Sensitive Applications**

Zhiyuan Yin
Liya Bi
Yueqing Shi
Shaowei Li

We present the design of a helium liquefaction system tailored to efficiently recover helium vapor from individual or small clusters of vibration-sensitive cryogenic instruments. This design prioritizes a compact footprint, mitigating potential contamination sources such as gas bags and oil-lubricated compressors while maximizing the recovery rate by capturing both the boil-offs during normal operation and the refilling process of the cryostat. We demonstrated its performance by applying it to a commercial low-temperature scanning probe microscope. It features a > 94% recovery rate and induces negligible vibrational noise to the microscope. Due to its adaptability, affordability, compact size, and suitability for homemade setups, we foresee that our design can be utilized across a wide range of experimental measurements where liquid helium is used as the cryogen.

**Classical Shadows for Quantum Process Tomography on Near-term Quantum Computers**

Ryan Levy
Di Luo
Bryan K. Clark

Quantum process tomography is a powerful tool for understanding quantum channels and characterizing properties of quantum devices. Inspired by recent advances using classical shadows in quantum state tomography [H.-Y. Huang, R. Kueng, and J. Preskill, Nat. Phys. 16, 1050 (2020).], we have developed ShadowQPT, a classical shadow method for quantum process tomography. We introduce two related formulations with and without ancilla qubits. ShadowQPT stochastically reconstructs the Choi matrix of the device allowing for an a-posteri classical evaluation of the device on arbitrary inputs with respect to arbitrary outputs. Using shadows we then show how to compute overlaps, generate all $k$-weight reduced processes, and perform reconstruction via Hamiltonian learning. These latter two tasks are efficient for large systems as the number of quantum measurements needed scales only logarithmically with the number of qubits. A number of additional approximations and improvements are developed including the use of a pair-factorized Clifford shadow and a series of post-processing techniques which significantly enhance the accuracy for recovering the quantum channel. We have implemented ShadowQPT using both Pauli and Clifford measurements on the IonQ trapped ion quantum computer for quantum processes up to $n=4$ qubits and achieved good performance.

**Detecting high-dimensional entanglement in cold-atom quantum simulators**

Niklas Euler
Martin G\"arttner

Quantum entanglement has been identified as a crucial concept underlying many intriguing phenomena in condensed matter systems, such as topological phases or many-body localization. Recently, instead of considering mere quantifiers of entanglement like entanglement entropy, the study of entanglement structure in terms of the entanglement spectrum has shifted into the focus, leading to new insights into fractional quantum Hall states and topological insulators, among others. What remains a challenge is the experimental detection of such fine-grained properties of quantum systems. The development of protocols for detecting features of the entanglement spectrum in cold-atom systems, which are one of the leading platforms for quantum simulation, is thus highly desirable and will open up new avenues for experimentally exploring quantum many-body physics. Here, we present a method to bound the width of the entanglement spectrum, or entanglement dimension, of cold atoms in lattice geometries, requiring only measurements in two experimentally accessible bases and utilizing ballistic time-of-flight (TOF) expansion. Building on previous proposals for entanglement certification for photon pairs, we first consider entanglement between two atoms of different atomic species and later generalize to higher numbers of atoms per species and multispecies configurations showing multipartite high-dimensional entanglement. Through numerical simulations, we show that our method is robust against typical experimental noise effects and thus will enable high-dimensional entanglement certification in systems of up to eight atoms using currently available experimental techniques.

**Observation of Quantum metric and non-Hermitian Berry curvature in a plasmonic lattice**

Javier Cuerda
Jani M. Taskinen
Nicki K\"allman
Leo Grabitz
P\"aivi T\"orm\"a

We experimentally observe the quantum geometric tensor, namely the quantum metric and the Berry curvature, for a square lattice of radiatively coupled plasmonic nanoparticles. We observe a non-zero Berry curvature and show that it arises solely from non-Hermitian effects. The quantum metric is found to originate from a pseudospin-orbit coupling. The long-range nature of the radiative interaction renders the behavior distinct from tight-binding systems: Berry curvature and quantum metric are centered around high-symmetry lines of the Brillouin zone instead of high-symmetry points. Our results inspire new pathways in the design of topological systems by tailoring losses or gain.

**Pseudospin-orbit coupling and non-Hermitian effects in the Quantum Geometric Tensor of a plasmonic lattice**

Javier Cuerda
Jani M. Taskinen
Nicki K\"allman
Leo Grabitz
P\"aivi T\"orm\"a

We theoretically predict the full quantum geometric tensor, comprising the quantum metric and the Berry curvature, for a square lattice of plasmonic nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles act as dipole or multipole antenna radiatively coupled over long distances. The photonic-plasmonic eigenfunctions and energies of the system depend on momentum and polarization (pseudospin), and their topological properties are encoded in the quantum geometric tensor. By T-matrix numerical simulations, we identify a TE-TM band splitting at the diagonals of the first Brillouin zone, that is not predicted by the empty lattice band structure nor by the highly symmetric nature of the system. Further, we find quantum metric around these regions of the reciprocal space, and even a non-zero Berry curvature despite the trivial lattice geometry and absence of magnetic field. We show that this non-zero Berry curvature arises exclusively from non-Hermitian effects which break the time-reversal symmetry. The quantum metric, in contrast, originates from a pseudospin-orbit coupling given by the polarization and directional dependence of the radiation.

**Investigation of transport properties of graphene Dirac fluid by holographic two-current axion coupling model**

C. E. Liu
S. G. Zhang

Recently, there has been great interest in the phenomenon of severe violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in graphene Dirac fluids around 75 K, due to the strong coupling relativistic plasma near the neutral point, where traditional perturbation theory fails. To explain this phenomenon, this article proposes a holographic dual two-current axion coupling model, describing the interaction between electrons and holes in graphene near the charge neutrality point (CNP) and revealing the related physical mechanism. The study shows that the holographic two-current model aligns with experimental results at $100\mu m^{-2}$,and correctly predicts conductivity as temperature increases. Additionally, the article explores the behavior of $\beta+\gamma$ and its impact on conductivity and thermal conductivity. The results suggest a frictional effect between electrons and holes. Consequently, this study provides us with a clearer understanding of the properties of graphene Dirac fluids and further confirms the reliability of the holographic duality method.

Found 1 papers in comm-phys Communications Physics, Published online: 05 February 2024; doi:10.1038/s42005-024-01534-8**Search terms: **(topolog[a-z]+)|(graphit[a-z]+)|(rhombohedr[a-z]+)|(graphe[a-z]+)|(chalcog[a-z]+)|(landau)|(weyl)|(dirac)|(STM)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ tunne[a-z]+ spectr[a-z]+)|(scan[a-z]+ prob[a-z]+ micr[a-z]+)|(MoS.+\d+|MoS\d+)|(MoSe.+\d+|MoSe\d+)|(MoTe.+\d+|MoTe\d+)|(WS.+\d+|WS\d+)|(WSe.+\d+|WSe\d+)|(WTe.+\d+|WTe\d+)|(Bi\d+Rh\d+I\d+|Bi.+\d+.+Rh.+\d+.+I.+\d+.+)|(BiTeI)|(BiTeBr)|(BiTeCl)|(ZrTe5|ZrTe.+5)|(Pt2HgSe3|Pt.+2HgSe.+3)|(jacuting[a-z]+)|(flatband)|(flat.{1}band)|(LK.{1}99) **Magnetic, transport and topological properties of Co-based shandite thin films**

Yukitoshi Motome